Anatomy and radiotherapy practices for digestive, renal and transport systems

  • Created by: Stephen
  • Created on: 22-05-17 19:32
What is the purpose of digestion?
Growth, Repair and Fuel
1 of 145
What 3 types of processes occur in digestion?
Mechanical, Chemical, Absorptive
2 of 145
What are the 6 stages of digestion?
Ingestion, Mastication, Deglutition, Peristalsis, Absorption, Defecation
3 of 145
What are the functions of the oral cavity?
Ingests food, Receives saliva, Mastication, Initiate breakdown of carbohydrates and fats, deglutition
4 of 145
What is ingestion?
Taking food into the digestive system by mouth (Mechanical)
5 of 145
What is mastication?
Chewing to pulverise food and mix it with saliva (Mechanical and chemical)
6 of 145
What is deglutition?
Swallowing chewed food (Mechanical)
7 of 145
Describe the macroscopic anatomy of the oral cavity
The shape of the oral cavity changes during speech, swallowing and respiration. It opens onto the face through the oral fissure and is continuous with the pharynx at the oropharyngeal isthmus. The oral cavity consists of the vestible and mouth cavity
8 of 145
What are the positional relationships of the oral cavity?
Lateral to the cheeks, Posterior to the lips, Anterior to the oropharynx, Inferior to the hard palate, superior to the tongue
9 of 145
What are rugae?
Wrinkles on the hard palate which help with tongue-palate articulation
10 of 145
What do the cheeks consist of?
Adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, skin and the oral mucosa
11 of 145
What do the lips consist of?
Skin, mucous membrane, orbicularis oris muscle
12 of 145
What is the arterial blood supply of the oral cavity?
The external carotid artery
13 of 145
What is the venous drainage of the oral cavity?
The internal jugular vein
14 of 145
What is the lymph drainage of the oral cavity?
The superficial and deep cervical chains
15 of 145
Describe the microscopic anatomy of the oral cavity
The oral cavity consists of a mucosa layer of stratified squamous epithelium
16 of 145
What are the pathologies of the oral cavity?
Ulcers, Infection, Cysts and Tumours
17 of 145
What are the accessory organs of the digestive tract?
Teeth, Tongue, Salivary glands, Liver, Gallbladder and pancreas
18 of 145
What is the function of the salivary glands?
To produce 800-1500 mls of saliva per day
19 of 145
What are the names of the three salivary glands?
Parotid gland, Submandibular gland and Sublingual gland
20 of 145
What is the function of saliva?
Lubricate and bind food, Oral hygiene, Initiation of carbohydrate and fat digestion
21 of 145
Describe the macroscopic anatomy of the parotid gland
Largest gland, Side of face below and in front of ear, covered by parotid sheath, 5cm long & 2cm wide, lobulated appearance, triangular in shape
22 of 145
What are the positional relationships of the parotid gland?
Superior to the angle of the mandible, Inferior to the zygomatic arch, Posterior to the masseter muscle, Anterior to the mastoid process, Lateral to the skin
23 of 145
What is the arterial blood supply of the parotid gland?
The external carotid artery
24 of 145
What is the venous drainage of the parotid gland?
The external jugular vein
25 of 145
What is the lymph drainage of the parotid gland?
The superficial and deep cervical chains
26 of 145
Describe the macroscopic anatomy of the submandibular gland
Lies inferior to the mandible, Superficial part lies underneath mandible, deep part lies in the floor of the mouth, 4cm long & 2cm wide, U shaped
27 of 145
What is the arterial blood supply of the submandibular gland?
The external carotid artery
28 of 145
What is the venous drainage of the submandibular gland?
The internal jugular vein
29 of 145
What is the lymph drainage of the submandibular gland?
The deep cervical chains
30 of 145
Describe the macroscopic anatomy of the sublingual gland
Lies under the floor of mouth, in the sublingual fossa of the mandible, almond shaped, opens into floor of mouth
31 of 145
What is the arterial blood supply of the sublingual gland?
The sublingual arteries
32 of 145
What is the venous drainage of the sublingual gland?
The sublingual veins
33 of 145
What is the lymph drainage of the sublingual gland?
The deep cervical chains
34 of 145
Describe the microscopic anatomy of the salivary glands
Epithelial secretory cells called acini (serous and mucous)
35 of 145
What controls the secretion of saliva?
The autonomic nervous system, Parasympathetic stimulation increases secretion, Sympathetic decreases secretion
36 of 145
What are the pathologies of the salivary glands?
Parotiditis, Abscess and malignancy
37 of 145
What is the function of the tongue?
Speech, Gustation, Mastication, Deglutition
38 of 145
Describe the gross anatomy of the tongue?
Forms the floor of the oral cavity and the anterior wall of the oropharynx. It is made up of a tip, body and base.
39 of 145
Describe the macroscopic anatomy of the anterior two thirds of the tongue?
Lies in the oral cavity, is triangular shaped, in horizontal plane, fills floor of mouth
40 of 145
What are the positional relationships of the anterior two thirds of the tongue?
Lateral to the cheeks, inferior to hard and soft palates, superior to floor of mouth
41 of 145
Describe the macroscopic anatomy of the posterior third of the tongue?
Lies behind the palatoglossal arches, attaches to hyoid bone, curves inferiorly
42 of 145
Where are the palatine and lingual tonsils?
At the back of the tongue
43 of 145
What is the function of the tonsils?
Protect against bacteria that can invade tissues
44 of 145
How many muscles are in the tongue?
4 extrinsic, 4 intrinsic
45 of 145
What is the arterial blood supply of the tongue?
The external carotid artery
46 of 145
What is the venous drainage of the tongue?
The internal jugular vein
47 of 145
What is the lymph drainage of the tongue?
Submandibular and deep cervical nodes
48 of 145
What is the microscopic anatomy of the tongue?
Mucosa layer of stratified squamous epithelium
49 of 145
What is the function of papillae?
Part of the process of gustation, house taste buds and allow for experience of texture
50 of 145
What are the pathologies of the tongue?
Malignancy, dysphagia, leukoplakia, erythroplakia
51 of 145
What are the sections of the pharynx?
Oropharynx, nasopharynx, laryngopharynx
52 of 145
What are the functions of the pharynx?
Provides a common pathway for respiratory and digestive tracts, affects phonation
53 of 145
Describe the macroscopic anatomy of the pharynx
Cone shaped fibromuscular tube, 15cm in length, width varies between 5cm and 1.5cm
54 of 145
Where does the pharynx start and end?
Base of skull extending to C5/6
55 of 145
What is the epiglottis?
A flap of tissue separating breathing and swallowing to avoid choking
56 of 145
What are the positional relationships of the pharynx?
Inferior to the occipital bone, Superior to oesophagus, Lateral to internal carotid arteries and jugular veins, Posterior to tongue, Anterior to buccopharyngeal fashia
57 of 145
What is the arterial blood supply of the pharynx?
Internal carotid arteries, inferior thyroid arteries
58 of 145
What is the venous drainage of the pharynx?
The internal jugular vein
59 of 145
What is the lymph drainage of the pharynx?
Deep cervical chains
60 of 145
What is the microscopic anatomy of the pharynx?
Circular muscular walls of constrictor muscles, stratified squamous epithelium mucosa
61 of 145
What are the pathologies of the pharynx?
Dysphagia, swallowed foreign body, malignancy, abscess
62 of 145
What is the position of the oesophagus?
C6 to stomach at T11
63 of 145
What is the shape of the oesophagus?
Tube, collapses when empty
64 of 145
What is the size of the oesophagus?
25cm long
65 of 145
What are the positional relationships of the oesophagus?
Posterior to trachea, anterior to vertebrae, lateral to thyroid and aorta and spleen
66 of 145
What is the arterial blood supply of the oesophagus?
Inferior thyroid, left gastric artery and thoracic aorta
67 of 145
What is the venous drainage of the oesophagus?
Inferior thyroid and left gastric vein
68 of 145
What is the lymph drainage of the oesophagus?
Right lymphatic and thoracic duct
69 of 145
What is the microscopic anatomy of the oesophagus?
Mucosa - stratified squamous, submucosa - areolar connective tissue, muscularis - longitudinal and circular muscles, adventitia - connective tissue
70 of 145
What is the function of the oesophagus?
Assist passage of food to stomach, lubricate food to reduce friction
71 of 145
What are the pathologies of the oesophagus?
Hiatus hernia, diverticula, malignancy, barretts oesophagus
72 of 145
What is the size of the stomach?
Changes with amount of food/fluid present
73 of 145
What is the shape of the stomach?
"J" shaped
74 of 145
What is the position of the stomach?
Left side of abdomen under diaphragm
75 of 145
What are the positional relationships of the stomach?
Posterior to anterior abdominal wall, anterior to pancreas, inferior to diaphragm, superior to transverse colon, lateral to liver and spleen
76 of 145
What is the arterial blood supply of the stomach?
Coeliac artery
77 of 145
What is the venous drainage of the stomach?
Hepatic vein
78 of 145
What is the lymph drainage of the stomach?
Gastric and pyloric nodes
79 of 145
What is the microscopic anatomy of the stomach?
Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis - 3 layers to help with digestion, Serosa
80 of 145
What are the pathologies of the stomach?
Diverticula, Hiatus hernia, Malignancy, Ulcers
81 of 145
What is the size of the duodenum?
25cm
82 of 145
What is the shape of the duodenum?
"C" shaped
83 of 145
What is the position of the duodenum?
Around head of pancreas in abdomen
84 of 145
What are the positional relationships of the duodenum?
Superior to the jejunum, Inferior to stomach
85 of 145
Arterial blood supply of duodenum?
Gastroduodenal artery
86 of 145
Venous drainage of duodenum?
Gastroduodenal vein
87 of 145
Lymph drainage of duodenum?
Super mesenteric nodes
88 of 145
Microscopic anatomy of small bowel?
Mucosa - Microvilli and Lacteals, Submucosa, Muscularis, Serosa
89 of 145
Size of jejunum?
1m long
90 of 145
Shape of jejunum
Series of curves
91 of 145
Position of jejunum
Umbilical region
92 of 145
Relationships of jejunum
Enclosed by peritoneum, inferior to duodenum, anterior to descending colon
93 of 145
Arterial supply of jejunum
Superior mesenteric artery
94 of 145
Venous drainage of jejunum
Superior mesenteric vein
95 of 145
Lymph drainage of jejunum
Lacteals, super mesenteric nodes
96 of 145
Size of ileum
2m long
97 of 145
Shape of ileum
Series of curves
98 of 145
Position of ileum
Hypogastric region
99 of 145
Relationships of ileum
Inferior to transverse colon, anterior to ascending colon
100 of 145
Arterial supply of ileum
Superior mesenteric artery
101 of 145
Venous drainage of ileum
Superior mesenteric vein
102 of 145
Lymph drainage of ileum
Lacteals, super mesenteric nodes
103 of 145
Size of large bowel
1.5m long, 6cm wide
104 of 145
Shape of large bowel
Curved around small bowel
105 of 145
Position of large bowel
Abdomen, appendix to rectum
106 of 145
Arterial supply of large bowel
Superior mesenteric artery
107 of 145
Venous drainage of large bowel
Superior mesenteric vein
108 of 145
Lymph drainage of large bowel
Superior mesenteric nodes
109 of 145
Microscopic structure of large bowel
Mucosa - absorptive and goblet cells, Submucosa, Muscularis, Serosa
110 of 145
Size of rectum
20cm long, up to 6cm wide
111 of 145
Shape of rectum
Hollow tube
112 of 145
Position of rectum
Posterior of pelvic cavity in midline
113 of 145
Relationships of rectum
Inferior to sigmoid colon, Superior to anus, Posterior to bladder
114 of 145
Arterial supply of rectum
Superior rectal artery
115 of 145
Venous drainage of rectum
Superior rectal vein
116 of 145
Lymph drainage of rectum
Pararectal lymph nodes
117 of 145
Size of liver
1.5kg
118 of 145
Shape of liver
Wedge shaped lobular structure
119 of 145
Position of liver
Right hypochondrium
120 of 145
Relationships of liver
Inferior to diaphragm, superior to right kidney, anterior to gall bladder
121 of 145
Arterial supply of liver
Hepatic artery, Hepatic portal vein
122 of 145
Venous drainage of liver
Hepatic veins
123 of 145
Lymph drainage of liver
Hepatic lymph nodes
124 of 145
Microscopic structure of liver
Hepatocytes, Bile canaliculi, Hepatic sinusoids, Kupffer cells
125 of 145
Function of liver
Formation and excretion of bile, metabolism, detoxification, storage
126 of 145
Liver pathology
Cirrhosis, jaundice, hepatitis, malignancy
127 of 145
Size of gaul bladder
Holds 30-60ml of bile
128 of 145
Shape of gaul bladder
Pear shaped
129 of 145
Position of gaul bladder
Right hypochondrium in gaul bladder fossa
130 of 145
Relationships of gaul bladder
Inferior to liver, posterior to liver, superior to duodenum
131 of 145
Arterial supply of gaul bladder
Cystic artery
132 of 145
Venous drainage of gaul bladder
Cystic vein
133 of 145
Lymph drainage of gaul bladder
Hepatic lymph nodes
134 of 145
Microscopic anatomy of gaul bladder
Mucosa, muscularis, serosa
135 of 145
Size of pancreas
15cm long, 2.5cm wide
136 of 145
Shape of pancreas
Lobular structure - head, neck and body
137 of 145
Position of pancreas
Retroperitoneal, left hypochondrium
138 of 145
Relationships of pancreas
Posterior to stomach, anterior to mesenteric vessels, left of duodenum, right of spleen
139 of 145
Arterial supply of pancreas
Splenic artery
140 of 145
Venous drainage of pancreas
Splenic vein
141 of 145
Lymph drainage of pancreas
Pancreaticosplenic nodes
142 of 145
Microscopic anatomy of pancreas
Exocrine cells 99% + Endocrine cells 1%
143 of 145
Function of pancreas
Secretion of fluids and digestive enzymes, secretion of hormones
144 of 145
Pancreas pathology
Pancreatitis, malignancy, hypoplasia, pseudocysts
145 of 145

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What 3 types of processes occur in digestion?

Back

Mechanical, Chemical, Absorptive

Card 3

Front

What are the 6 stages of digestion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the functions of the oral cavity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is ingestion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Health & Social Care resources:

See all Health & Social Care resources »See all Anatomy and radiotherapy practices for digestive, renal and transport systems resources »