Heart A&P

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Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart

The cardiovascular system comprises:

  • Systemic
  • Pulmonary
  • Cerebral
  • Coronary
  • Portal

We only need to focus on the Pulmonary, systemic and the Coronary but you still need to have an awareness and basic understanding of the other parts and how they link in.

Look at pictures for the pulmonary and systemic circulation and be able to label them.

Heart Gross Anatomy:

  • Hollow Shaped Cone
  • Lies in the mediastinum
  • Lies at an oblique angle 2/3 left of the midline
  • The Base of the heart is at the Atria and the Apex is at the bottom.
  • Base to apex is approx. 12.5cm
  • Approx. size of the owner's fist.
  • Weighs approx. 225-300g in females, 300-350g in males
  • Within the thoracic cavity
  • Near the anterior surface of the chest wall
  • Base sits posterior to the sternum at the level of the 3rd costal cartilage
  • The apex extends to the midline of the 5th intercostal space
  • 4 chambers - top 2 are atria, bottom 2 are ventricles.
  • Ventricals possess thicker muscles and the Left ventricle is thicker than the right
  • Valves prevent backflow to maintain pressure.
  • Some connection between atria during fetal development

Coronary Circulation

  • Right Coronary Artery - Posterior Interventricular Branch, Marginal Branch.
  • Left Coronary Artery - Anterior Interventricular Branch, Circumflex Branch.

Look at pictures of the heart, be able to label it, including coronary circulation.

Know the blood flow through the heart and be able to talk through the process.

Heart Valves

  • 2 pairs of one-way valves
  • Atrioventricular valves - tricuspid and bicuspid/mitral
  • Chordae tendinae and papillary muscle prevent the…

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