Culture - Cross Cultural Differences/Hofstede

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1. What is the definition of Cultural Syndromes?

  • Degree to which members of society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity
  • Culture does not acccurate represent its percieved stereotype (e.g. Japan comes 23rd on the Individualism scale)
  • They reflect shared beliefs, attitudes, catergoriations and norms, roles and values organised around a central theme
  • Extent to which members of society accept power in institutions is distributed unequally
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2. What countries have the lowest levels of Power Distance?

  • Austria, Israel and Denmark
  • Switzerland, Jamaica and Chile
  • Malaysia, Guatamala and Panama
  • Japan, Ireland and Mexico

3. Define ecological fallacy

  • The ability to generalise cross-cultural research
  • Falsely extrapolating group-level findings to individual level of explanation
  • Wrongly attributing properties of individuals to cultures

4. How many definitions of culture are there?

  • More than 164
  • 20
  • 102
  • More than 223

5. What is not a criticism of Cultural research?

  • The correspondance bias
  • Outdated - too old for coping with todays rapidly changing environment
  • Research tends to be from one discipline - would be a better foundation from multi-disciplinary approach (using sociology,psychology, economics and anthropology)
  • Political influences on Masculinity and Uncertaintity Avoidance - were sensitive to the timing of the survey as Europe was in the midst of a Cold War and recovering from WW2 and there was a communist insurgence in Asia, Africa and Europe


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