Contemporary Urban Environments

  • Created by: M.Qvvlls
  • Created on: 27-05-19 17:12
South India. 1961- 262 lakes and tanks, now 117-81, satellites show 33 and 18 delineated. Natural flora and fauna is present 40km from city centre, pollution from vehicles has induced urban heat island effect.
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Urban Change; Deindustrialisation
Decline in factory manufacturing industries (long term) which could be down to technology and income. Reduced demand in trends and fashion. Labour costs are cheaper in LIC. Globalisation of manufacturing.
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Urban Change; Reduced need for labour
Rapid technology development increases productivity meaning less jobs for actual workers.
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Urban Change; Reduced demand
Household income increases, prefer to spend disposable income on services rather than manufactured goods, reduced productivity in manufacturing.
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Urban Change; Globalisation of manufacturing
Employing large numbers of workers no longer makes sense.
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Urban Change; Increases costs
of raw materials, politics, removal of trade subsidy.
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Urban Decline; Demographic
Detroit white flight movement, ageing population with young moving out and leaving the elderly/ ethnic groups/ minorities.
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Urban Decline; Social
Unrest and inequality, potentially gang crimes. Migration. Poor health and quality of life.
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Urban Decline; Political
Political disturbance, difficulty improving the area. Protests/crime/extremists.
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Urban Decline; Geographical
Inner city movement.
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Urban Decline; Economic
loss of countries income, lack of investment in area, high levels of unemployment, poor standard of education.
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Urban Decline; Physical
Derelict buildings, crime, manufacturing stops. Damage to residential properties. Brown field sites and vacant buildings.
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High/multi storey buildings, expensive land values, department stores and specialist shops such as jewellers, shopping malls, pedestrian precincts, cultural/historical buildings, offices, banks, finance, bus and railway stations, car parks.
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Changes in CBD
Due to retail since 1980s. Retail moving to out of town. Increase in cost in upkeep and development of CBD, becoming increasingly expensive, congested and inaccessible.
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Due to space- bigger shops need more space, land is cheaper further from city. Improved connectivity/ mobility. CBD parking is expensive whereas 100s of parking in Lakeside are free. Encourages growth in poorer areas.
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Causes of decentralisation
Government policy favoured OOT locations, increased mobility. Loss of shops& offices to out of town centres- negative multiplier effect. Events e.g. Manchester bombing 1996.
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Rise of Service Economy
Growth in corporate HQs- need for multinationals. Growth in research and development, expanding consumer demand, leisure and quality. Property development and need for prime location.
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Result of Rise of Service Economy on jobs
Very few high-paid managerial jobs, total growth from 1950's has not compensated loss of manufacturing jobs.
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Rise of Service Economy has led to DECENTRALISATION
E.g. Cambridge Science Park, businesses such as Huawei, Philips etc locate here due to Cambridge Phenomenon (influx of students from Cambridge Uni).
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Urban Morphology
Spatial structure and organisation of an urban area.
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Peak land value intersection- the point with higher land value.
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Central Business District.
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Urban Form
Physical layout and design of the city.
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Distance Decay
From PVLI land decreases in value.
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What changes Urban Form?
transport, technology, environment, government, intervention and policy, events, population change, globalisation and migration.
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Examples of Fortress Landscape features;
Anti-homeless spikes, mosquito alarms, defensible space. High-Perimeter fencing, barbed wire, CCTV cameras, can reduce burglary by 75%.
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Changes in City Centre; Mixed Development example
Exeter, Devon replaced post war unattractive development with more than 60 retail units, 122 flats and a unique visitor attraction.
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Changes in City Centre; Cultural and Heritage Quarters example
Sheffield cultural industries quarter.
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Gentrified areas example
London, Stratford and 2012 Olympic bid.
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Edge city example
Los Angeles- self contained settlement which have emerged beyond the original city boundary.
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Post Modern Western Cities- urban form associated with changes in urban structure, architectural design, reflecting change in social and economic conditions in late 20th c in western cities.
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post war and emerging technology, concrete, glass, steal were key. Less is more, function should dictate form. e.g. concrete car park- aesthetics don't matter.
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Post Modernism
As of 1972, challenges boundaries of design, innovative.
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Planning in Modern and Post Modern
M: planned in totality, planned and shaped for social needs. PM: planned in fragments, focus on aesthetics rather than social needs.
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Urban Structure in Modern and Post Modern
M: dominant commercial centres and steady decline in land value from. PM: multi-nodal, containing hi-tech corridors and post suburban developments.
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Culture & Society in Modern and Post Modern
M: division of class and large homogeneity. PM: ethnic diversity, culturally highly fragmented city, social polarisation in some areas.
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Landscape in Modern and Post Modern
M: dominated by very functional architecture. PM: architecture is more an expression of art than function, greater use of heritage.
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Economy in Modern and Post Modern
M: industrial focusing on mass production of economies of scale. PM: service sector based economy focuses on niche markets, global economy, telecommunications dominate.
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urban architecture & landscape- epitome OTT consumerism of American Architecture, local government work in partnership with private corporations. powerful gaming/ casino industry dominated a fragmented/ weak local government.
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LONDON; Fragmentation
China Town, European Food Stores vs Posh London Kensington
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LONDON; Globalisation
M/TNC. Large brand stores e,g. GAP, Nike, Foreign Secretary.
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LONDON; simulation
Royal Albert Hall, London Eye.
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LONDON; fortification
USA embassy building.
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LONDON; beautification
Shard, Gherkin, Trafalgar Square
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LONDON; information
banks and economic sector are 80% GDP.
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LONDON; gentrification
Stratford housing improvement, new jobs, Notting Hill, links to fragmentation.
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LONDON; decentralisation
London- inner and greater. Basildon- new town.
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LONDON; privatisation
Housing, Finsbury park.
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MUMBAI; fragmentation, globalisation
social inequality within post colonial metropolis. world wide holiday resort and airport.
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MUMBAI; simulation, fortification
sky towers. terror attacks- metal detectors policing, security guards and police.
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MUMBAI; beautification, information
city stations by Dubai NGO. tourism, farming and agriculture sector work.
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MUMBAI; gentrification, decentralisation, privatisation
development industry due to tourism Mahul. has spread to create new island resorts. BEST buses and privatisation.
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Multiculturalism and cultural diversity- social & economic issues associated with urbanisation TORONTO eg
Half its population is born outside Canada from 200 ethnic groups, often referred to as most multicultural city in the work.
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How many languages are spoken in London
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immigration into UK
2016 EU referendum- immigration was one of most discussed topics.
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Issues associated with cultural diversity
economic- migrants may meet labour shortages particularly in labour and manufacturing, housing is normally hard for poor immigrants. ethnic minorities are normally associated with poorer heath.
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Urban Climates
urban areas create their own micro climates, sometimes referred to as climatic domes. There are two levels within the urban climatic dome, a roof layer and an urban canopy where process occur. the urban boundary layer is above this.
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Temperature inversion
unusual atmospheric conditions- temp increases with height trapping pollution in lower layer of atmosphere due to inversions bringing stable conditions which don't allow convection.
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Photochemical pollution
form of air pollution occurring mainly in cities, potential danger to health. exhaust fumes trapped by temp, inversion in presence of sunlight form low level ozone. associated with low pressure weather systems.
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small scale variations in temp, precipitation, humidity, wind speed and evaporation occuring in an urban environment
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urban heat island
zone around & above urban area which has higher temperatures than the surrounding rural areas
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particulate air pollution
form of air pollution caused by release of particles and noxious gasses into the atmosphere.
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reflectivity of surface. ration between incoming insolation and amount of energy reflected back into the atmosphere. light surfaces reflect more than dark surfaces and so have a greater albedo.
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Winds on urban climate
lower speeds- buildings at varying heights increase friction, greater variability in CBD due to variety e.g Urban Canyons (tall buildings) and venturi effect.
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Venturi Effect
large scale convection produced by heat island effect causing low pressure and therefore air being drawn from surround aura areas.
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temperature & urban heat island effect;
urban areas are warmer than rural surroundings.
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intensity of urban heat island is...
the maximum difference between temp of rural and peak of urban.
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5 main factors heat island effect;
1. anthropogenic heat (human), 2. height & arrangement of buildings, 3. nature of building materials, 4. presence of water, 5. presence of pollutants.
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pollution and micro climates;
micro climates are dirtier than rural counterparts.
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London congestion charge
discounts available for greenest cars, up to 100% for hybrid electric, battery electric and fuel electric cars. charge is £11.50 a day, between 0700 and 1800, cars producing higher emissions and charged on a sliding (increasing) scale.
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London congestion charge BENEFITS
CO2 and NO2 emissions down, traffic reduced by 21%, bus passenger inc by 45%, cyclist inc by 43%, road traffic accidents down by 5%, 60% less reduction to bus services.
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Greater London Low Emission Zone
introduced feb 2008, area with most polluting vehicles forced to pay daily charge, starting with lorries.
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development of London Low Emission Zone
April 2019- new tighter emission standard called Ultra-Low Emission Zone.
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London Buses
constantly being updated and replaced to be most efficient etc.
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Rental Bikes London
Boris Bikes/ Santander Bikes- 2010, 5,000 bikes, 315 docking stations cost £140 mil to set up, £25 mil sponsorship from Barclays. To date; 13,600 bikes, 839 docking stations, up to 30 mins is free.
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London 1952 great smog
one of worst winter smogs, 12,000 people died in 4 days due to respiratory problems which lead to the 1952 clean air act.
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Problems caused by air pollution;
heart problems, headaches, tiredness, greenhouse effect, haze, respiratory problems, acid rain, damage to plants
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3 main types of pollutants
carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides
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Smog & Great London Smog
mix of smoke & fog, occurs when smoke particulates and sulphur dioxide from burning coal mix with fog. London smog caused by anticyclones trapping pollutants in a pollution dome, cold air unusually below warm.
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Smog today
more likely to be photochemical, caused by sunlight reacting chemically with industrial & vehicle emissions.
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Impact of Anticyclones on Smog
descending air warms as it falls and picks up moisture, consequently condensation in unlikely and so clouds are rare. clear skies ensure warm sunny weather in summer.
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Smog and Technical Innovations
such as reduction of gas and particulate emissions by using things such as filters, lead free petrol and catalytic converters.
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Sustainable policies in Freiburg, Germany & effectiveness;
Energy saving houses are norm, restrictions to use of cars in city, effective transport alternatives and regulated land use. eliminated reliance on heating and therefore energy, fossil fuel consumption and the resulting pollution.
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Sustainable policies in Cruitiba, Brazil;
Bus rapid transport system established and doesn't allow 'polluting industries'. reduced transport time and creation of jobs. 70% of pop actively recycle.
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Sustainable policies in Beijing, China
Less coal- cleaner air. dismantling of coal fired plants, one child policy lowering population growth and therefore pollution.
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Sustainable policies in Mexico City, Mexico
2012 Climate Change Law, inc provision of clean water and air pollution. LIC aspect makes change difficult.
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Water issues in urban areas
need to be drained, remove surface runoff quickly, drains remove water quickly into urban rivers.
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Urban water quality
pollutants from urban areas are being washed into rivers/ the ground, once polluted rivers are very difficult to clean.
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Urban Hydrology
precipitation amounts are higher in urban areas due to microclimates, condensation nuclei, evapotranspiration is lower, natural landscapes (forests, wet lands, grass lands) trap & store precipitation allowing it to infiltrate ground slowly.
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urban areas precipitation and interception...
interception of precipitation is higher, evaporation is higher.
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Veg and run off
more vegetation means less surface run off.
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urban rivers are..
primary exit for water transfer within in urban drainage basin, important stores. management of river channels by dredging, embanking and channelisation will increase storage capacity.
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reservoirs are..
are permanent stores but vulnerable to evaporation.
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depression storage
are puddles which follow rain and are temporary.
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interception storage
reduced owing to replacement of vegetation by impermeable structures e.g. buildings, roads and pavements engineered to drain water rapidly into the nearest river.
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soil moisture storage
varies according to ground conditions, clay and soil store more water than sandy ones. usually less exposed surfaces and vegetated areas.
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sustainable urban drainage
less vegetation means interception in urban areas, so there is more surface run off.
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examples of water removal in urban areas;
sloping roof, smooth rounded guttering, cambered roads.
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what are SUDS;
sustainable urban drainage systems; environmentally friendly replications of natural drainage systems
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Urban Change; Deindustrialisation


Decline in factory manufacturing industries (long term) which could be down to technology and income. Reduced demand in trends and fashion. Labour costs are cheaper in LIC. Globalisation of manufacturing.

Card 3


Urban Change; Reduced need for labour


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Urban Change; Reduced demand


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Urban Change; Globalisation of manufacturing


Preview of the front of card 5
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Brilliant mate, many thanks for this!

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