Urban Form and Land Use

  • Created by: RebekahW
  • Created on: 09-04-19 12:55

Types of Megacities

Immature megacity:

  • Growing rapidly in an uncontrolled way with no government stability
  • rural-urban migration
  • infrastructure can’t keep up, so health, housing and pollution problems.
  • Lagos, Nigeria

Consolidating megacity:

  • slower growth and self-help schemes introduced by government, informal sector.
  • Mumbai, India

Maturing megacity:

  • More developed formal economy
  • Managed efficiently. Legal wellbuilt homes and advanced transport, education, waste schemes.
  • Rio, Brazil

Established Megacity:

  • Stable government, professional sectors, adequate services, high quality of life.
  • London, UK
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Bad megacities

Political - In south, not governed properly. Self help schemes as the Govenment aren’t properly equipped to help.

Employment - Informal sector and not enough opportunities

Environment - Pollution has local impacts on climate and energy impacts globally.

Social - High crime rates, poor infrastructure, cities meeting restrictions and social unrest.

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Burgess Model, Hoyt Sector Model and Multiple Nucl

Burgess Model -
CBS industry (transition zone), lowerclass (residential), middle class and upper class (outer city). Based upon 1920 Chicago USA. Industry near CBS due to transport links. Urban sprawl and sub-urbanisation allowed this layout to happen.

Hoyt’s Sector Model-
Areas for certain activities or purposes which expand outwards in wedges. More expensive on the outskirts and industry is along traffic routes, so it accessible. Linear development.
Example - Newcastle M4 corridor.

Multiple Nuclei Model -
Different areas with different uses - each has its own centre and purpose. Class divide - lower class near industry, upper class near business district. They follow nodes - something everything is built around.
Example - Gateshead interchange.

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Urban Realms Model and Latin America Model (origin

Urban Realms Model -
Areas of conurbations which function separately due to purposes. Edge cities are linked to social segregation - wealthy move to suburbs. CBDs are spreading.
Examples - Los Angeles, Detroit, Malibu

Latin America -
Original: Fits flavella areas like Rio.
Improved: Gentrification, more different zones and purposes.
As cities developed, there became more developement in government. Develops into tertiary sector. An elite sector due to higher paid jobs. Private investors improving housing. Government trying to boost economy. Mall is a node as elite housing followed it.

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Spatial patterns

Urban morphology - Spacial structure and organisation of an urban area and how they change.

Influencing factors:

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PLVI (Peak Land Value Intersection)

Smaller retailers tend to be found towards edge of CBD.
Only very profitable businesses afford high land prices at PLVI.
PLVI is the point the highest land value. Land prices decline from here.
Land value is highest where accessibility is the greatest.

Tends to be secondary (subsidiary) land value peaks, minor roads leading to suburbs, and outer ring road.

All to do with accessibility.

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Bid-rent theory

Simplified distance-decay model

As distance from the CBD increases there’s is less competition for land, so values drop.
Retail and commercial enterprises occupy most of the CBD.
Smaller retails and businesses are more likely to be found towards the edge of the CBD so is more affordable.
Between CBDN and suburbs, land values fall significantly.

Fits the Burgess Land Model.

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Urban Form

Urban Form - the physical characteristics that make up built-up areas, including the shape, size, density and configuration of settlements.

Population: increased migration - crowded with a lack of infrastructure.
people leaving - derelict land, edge cities

Technology: businesses parks - attracts people, so population increases

Environment: Physical structure - sewage/waste treatment, lack for population

Economy: Industry follows people, so when people move there is little in CBD

Politics: Green be,t and brownfield land - where construction is allowed.

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Megacities - contemporary characteristics

Urban sprawl
Edge cities
Peripheral growth (new settlements)
Environmental concerns
Car dominated urban form
Residential differentiation (different groups separated)
Transit-oriented development (Transport routes)
High density living

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New Urban Landscapes

A contemporary city which doesn’t fit any urban model properly. They aren’t planned.

Gentrified areas:
Form of inner city regeneration involving the movement of wealthy people into run drown areas. The local area is upgraded, rising costs and pushing the working class out.
Examples - Quayside apartments, West end of Newcastle - Scotswood.

Edge cities:
Characterised by office, residential and leisure spaces. Located in outer suburbs close to transport routes.
Examples - Bankers Hill (east of Lincoln), Los Angeles, Croydon

Fortress Landscapes:
Defensible spaces planned creating strong boundaries. Gated residential areas, shopping centres patrolled by private security and new technology used to monitor the area. Discourages social mixing.
Example - Metrocentre

City centre changes:
Type of people living there changes, gentrification, multiplier effect, edge cities develop from suburbs. Cultural quarter development.
Example: Northumberland st. Changed from clerical to retail in response to Metrocentre.

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Post Modern Western City

An urban form associated with changes in urban structure, architectual design and planning, and reflects the changed social and economic conditions of late 20th C in some western cities.

Neo-classical architecture
High ethnic diversity

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Post modern western city characteristics

Largely related to urban realms model and multiple nuclei model.

Structure: multi nodal. Economy: service sector (tertiary)
Hi tech corridors Niche markets
Edge cities. Telecommunications (Bangalore)

Landscape: architect is art. Culture: Ethnic diversity
Heritage and neo-classical. Fragmented
Sage and Millennium Bridge. Gated communities

Planning: fragments and aesthetics, not functions.

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