Contemporary Urbanisation

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  • Contemporary Urbanisation Processes
    • Urbanisation
      • Increase in percentage of country living in towns and cities
      • Urbanisation level = the current % of people in a country living in towns and cities
      • Urbanisation rate= the speed at which a country is urbanising
      • Causes of urbanisation
        • Rural to urban migration
          • Characteristics= initially short term, small town first the larger city, young adults
          • Rural to urban migration in Mumbai
            • Causes
              • Social
                • Migrants for natural disasters move to city after losing homes
                • Better medical and healthcare- lower infant mortality
                • Escaping rigid caste system in rural areas of India and arranged marriages
              • Environmental
                • Large pop. growth in rural areas put pressure on environ. (overcropping and overgrazing)
              • Economic
                • Wages in Mumbai 6 times higher than in rural areas
                • Mumbai attracts foreign investment
                • Land fragmentation makes rural living more difficult
                • Mechanisation of agriculture putting rural farmers out of business
            • Effects
              • Social
                • Lack of sanitation- 600 people to 1 toilet in Dharavi
                • Easy spread of disease- 4000 cases of typhoid diagnosed a day
                • High crime rates
              • Economic
                • Informal- no tax- jobs earning 20p to £30 a month
                  • Council has no tax money for improvement of Dharavi
                • Small industry businesses e.g. charcoal makers- illegal renting
                • Council has no tax money for improvement of Dharavi
              • Environmental
                • Contamination of River Mithi with chemical/ animal waste
                • Increased road traffic- 60% of Mumbai have breathing problems
        • Natural Increase
          • Countryside migrants = large families + no contraception
        • Longevity
          • Better medical care, diets, leisure and higher life expectancies
      • Management
        • Availability of work, water, sanitation and shelter
          • Economic
            • Slum tours and soft loans from NGO's
              • Unpredictable tourism e.g. conflict
          • Environmental
            • Buffer ecozone around 20m of River Mithi
              • Need to remove present waste first
          • Social
            • Government resettlement into housing- better facilities
              • Affordability- location from work?
        • Hazards, toxic waste and water, air and noise pollution
          • Social
            • Public transport provision
              • Affordibility and no council money to provide
          • Environmental
            • Clearance and removal of slums
              • Abandoned displaced people
    • Sub-urbanisation
      • Movement of population, employment and services from inner city to outskirts of town
        • Physical expansion of towns and cities
        • Swallows up surrounding villages
      • Causes
        • Better quality of life- less pollution, congestion, crime and better schools
        • Car ownership and transport improvements
        • Council and Private suburban estates, easier mortgage access and cheap build materials
        • Industry in suburban estates
      • Example
        • Bolton: Middlebrook on urban fringe
          • Retail, cinema, football
          • Newly developed housing
            • More expensive housing
          • Increased levels of traffic and management of rail link
          • Hard and soft engineering as less interception and infiltration
            • Management by channeling river
      • Effects on Middlebrook
        • New jobs and facilities
        • Easier commuting
        • Increases in trade and economy
        • Visual, air and noise pollution
        • Increase in council taxes
      • Effects on Inner Bolton city centre
        • Decrease in customers and increase in un-employment
        • Social segregation- marginalised poorer population
        • Multiple deprivation in Crompton- failing schools as a result
    • Counter-urbanisation
      • Movement of population from large cities to smaller towns
      • Jumping over greenbelt area
      • Characteristics
        • Middle class families-(or retired) -expensive housing- safer environment
        • Young people recruited by  high tech companies in rural science parks
        • Ecotowns- companies in rural areas- staff follow and move- planning controls lifted by gov
      • Examples
        • Parbold
          • Wealthy- West Lancashire
          • Young people leaving for education and employment
          • Decline of village born locals- death
          • In migration of young rich families
            • Quiet, relaxed, safer, attractive, property will increase in value
            • More trade, more jobs, maintain demand for services, more tax collection
        • Buckshaw Village
          • West Lancashire, growing from 4000, self sufficient
          • Built on brownfield site
          • Public transport for sustainalbility
          • No social exclusion- mixed price housing
    • Re-urbanisation
      • Movement of people and investment BACK into towns and cities
      • Gentrification
        • Individually led urban development e.g. Brick Lane 1980s
          • Taking advantage of cheap low income housing
            • Bad social effects on initial residents- driven out by high resource and house prices
          • Refusal to live in high price CBD or family suburban area far from CBD
            • Can reach work, leisure, retail and culture and have city lifestyle
      • Regeneration
        • Poor areas after de-industrialisation
          • Public and private investment to improve environment
            • Attracted investment form property, finance, leisure and retail
              • London Docklands inner city east end
      • Student-ification
        • City centre universities attract students e.g. UCL then find local work in city
      • Immigration
        • 1995-2005 brought 5 million people to inner cities and high birth rates (cultural beliefs)
      • Effects of Re-urbanisation in London
        • Property Led regeneration, in Docklands
          • £7 billion is private investment + new employment
          • Light railway build for faster travel to London city
          • No jobs for poorer unemployed in Docklands- less skills
          • Refurbish old dirty buildings and new usage
        • Gentrification in Brick Lane-
          • Individual led renova.- local council= street furniture and recreation areas
          • New businesses + more taxes to local council fo area imporvement
          • Demand for lower paid house jobs e.g. painters, builders
          • Lower income can't afford services- initial busi. priced out
          • Skills mismatch for new jobs - unemployment still high
      • Planning and management issues
        • Regeneration
          • London Docklands Development corp. 1980's
          • Quangos bypass plan restr. Cnary Wharf £7billion invest.
          • Skills mismatch = IT training and affordable housing
          • Light railway and Olympics afford. housing changed from 75% to 35%
        • Gentrification
          • Gentrification in Brick Lane-
            • Individual led renova.- local council= street furniture and recreation areas
            • New businesses + more taxes to local council fo area imporvement
            • Demand for lower paid house jobs e.g. painters, builders
            • Lower income can't afford services- initial busi. priced out
            • Skills mismatch for new jobs - unemployment still high

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