World Cities Case studies and general info

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URBANISATION: The process whereby rural areas (countryside) are becoming urban. It will involve an
increase in the absolute (and usually percentage of) population living in the urban area. The urban
area will also grow in size to cover a greater physical area and there will be a move away from
primary employment to secondary and later, tertiary.
An urban area can grow by two processes. Firstly, it will grow as a result of natural increase and
secondly, as a result of net migration.
The developed world has experienced Urbanisation for hundreds of years. In the UK, this was largely
following the Industrial Revolution in late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Population density
is lower than in the developing world. Growth in cities in developed world cities has largely stabilised,
but there are still many issues which need addressing.
Urbanisation is a more recent phenomenon in the developing world. The growth over the past fifty
years of many developing world cities has had major implications for the people living there and their
management. Population density is very high.
The majority of the world's largest cities are in the developing world (2011):
1. Tokyo, Japan 35.6 million
2. Chongqing (Chungking), China 31.4 million
3. New York City, Philadelphia area, USA 30.1 million
4. Mexico City, Mexico 21.5 million
5. Seoul, South Korea 20.15 million
6. Sao Paulo, Brazil 19.9 million
7. Jakarta, Indonesia 18.2 million
8. OsakaKobeKyoto, Japan 17.6 million
9. New Delhi, India 17.36 million
10. Mumbai, India (Bombay) 17.34 million
The number of million cities in the developing world will continue to increase. 'A million city' is one
which has reached a population of one million plus.

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Key themes
The process of suburbanisation is entering a new phase with offices and businesses now
leaving the city for the suburbs
Rapid urban growth creates social and environmental problems, including sprawl, pollution,
congestion, and problems of water supply and waste disposal
1. SUBURBANISATION ­ decentralisation of people, employment and services from the inner part of
the city towards the margins of the built up area ­ the effects of suburbanisation are felt within
the city and in the surrounding rural areas.
2.…read more

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Urbanisation in LEDC's Dharavi, Mumbai
Formally known as Bombay, is India's largest city with around 14,350,000 people.…read more

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COUNTER URBANISATION The movement of people from an urban area into the surrounding rural
A different process to Suburbanisation, but easy to confuse them if not careful, Suburbanisation is the
movement from the centre of urban areas to the outskirts
There are two main trends:
A movement of employment to rural areas
A movement of people to rural areas who then commute.…read more

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GENTRIFICATIONIn movement by individuals or groups of people into older housing that was in a
state of disrepair and then the improvement of the housing
2. PROPERTY LED REGENERATION SCHEMES in movement by people as part of a large scale investment
programme aimed at urban regeneration in a wider social economic sense
3.…read more

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