Cold Environments page 34-35

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  • Created by: Breesha1
  • Created on: 17-04-14 15:13
Reasons why environments might be cold?
High Latitude + High Altitude + Continentality
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High Latitude
High Latitudes are colder due to them receiving less solar radiation, due to the suns energy hitting the earth at a greater angle so it is spread over a larger area
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High Altitude
High Altitude are colder due to the air temperatures decreasing with increasing altitude, lower air pressures higher up also means that temperatures drop: it gets between 6-10 oC colder for every 1000m
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Continentality
Middle of continents are cold due to being far away from the sea; in summer the land heats quickly and the sea heats slowly. Whereas in winter the land cools quickly and the sea cools slowly;in winter the sea warms coastal land but not the interior
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Glacial Environments
Permanently covered by ice-either glaciers or ice sheets ( only form cold areas) High Latitude Greenland Ice sheet above 60o latitude, High Altitude glaciers are found in Himalayan mountains highest range in world despite 30o latitude.
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Glaciers
Masses of ice which flow downhill, there are 2 types valley and corrie. Valley glaciers fill valleys and can be several kilometres long. Corrie glaciers are smaller glaciers which are found in bowl shaped hollows up mountains.
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Ice sheet
Domes of ice which cover huge areas of land like the Antarctic Ice Sheet
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Periglacial Environments
Temperature is constantly/frequently below freezing 0o but not covered by ice, contain a layer of permafrost below or above ground. High latitudes North America + Europe large areas of permafrost.
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Permafrost
Permanently frozen ground
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Periglacial Environments continued
High Altitudes periglacial conditions exist around ice masses or mountain ranges, they are also found on high altitude plateaus Tibetan plateau in Asia. In the interior of land masses, periglacial environments exist at lower latitudes& altitudes
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Alpine Environments
Cold areas of land above the treeline; treeline is the limit that trees can grow above this it is too cold for them to grow. High Altitudes can be found above the treeline on mountain ranges Andes South America. Exist at any Latitude
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Alpine Environments continued
Exist at any Latitude for example they exist along the rocky mountains which vary in latitudes from 30-50o. Temps decrease altitude increases Alpine environments can include periglacial above the treeline+ glacial areas snow and ice exist higher up.
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Polar Environments Arctic - North Pole
Cold high latitude, Arctic Polar environment can be defined either by the Arctic circle 66oN or isotherm 10o July. Area around north pole made of sea ice, sea shrinks in summer leaving open sea and refreezes in winter.
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Polar Environments Arctic - North Pole continued
Arctic polar region mostly made up of northern land areas Europe Asia and North America. Land based polar environments can include glacial and periglacial environments
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Polar Environments Antarctic - South Pole
Cold due to high latitude -66oS -doesnt go right around land mass polar environment can be defined by the 10oC January isotherm. High Altitude makes some of Antarctic cold due to ice reaching 4000m high. Interior affected by continentality
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Polar Environments Antarctic - South Pole continued
Continentality - centre is 100km away from warming ocean affects. Large area is made of sea ice area of the sea changes through the year shrinks in summer + refreezes in winter. Antarctica polar region is mostly huge land mass of Antarctica- glacial
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

High Latitudes are colder due to them receiving less solar radiation, due to the suns energy hitting the earth at a greater angle so it is spread over a larger area

Back

High Latitude

Card 3

Front

High Altitude are colder due to the air temperatures decreasing with increasing altitude, lower air pressures higher up also means that temperatures drop: it gets between 6-10 oC colder for every 1000m

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Middle of continents are cold due to being far away from the sea; in summer the land heats quickly and the sea heats slowly. Whereas in winter the land cools quickly and the sea cools slowly;in winter the sea warms coastal land but not the interior

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Permanently covered by ice-either glaciers or ice sheets ( only form cold areas) High Latitude Greenland Ice sheet above 60o latitude, High Altitude glaciers are found in Himalayan mountains highest range in world despite 30o latitude.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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