Physical geography case studies

Namib aeolian landforms

- Ventifacts found inland of Walrus Bay

- Mega yardangs carved from ancient metamorphic rock, 20km long

- Yardangs found on Orange river at the Northern border

- Largest sand dunes in the world are found in South West Namibia, 300m high  (cresentic dunes)

- Namib desert has a South East prevailing wind

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Western USA fluvial landforms

- Alluvial fans found in death valley, Panamint range

- Salt flats at Lake Bonneville Utah,1.8m high

- Inselbergs found in monument valley, Utah: Shinarump caprock, Dechelly sandstone, Organ Shale

- Slot Canyons found in antelope canyon, Arizona

- Pedestal rocks found at Arches National Park, Utah

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Domedary camel

-Danakl depression in Ethiopia is officially the hottest place on earth

-Can go for 7 days without drinking

- It's body temperature can rise 6 degrees above normal

- Gut reabsorbs water

- Dry faeces

- Sucks moisture out of its food

- Only has two toes so that they don't sink in

- Fat in hump can be converted into water

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Red Kangaroo

- Air temperature in Australia's outback reaches over 50 degrees celsius

- Lick their forearms so that saliva evaporates

- Only move in the morning and evening to feed

- Proportion of legs and tails means at full speed they can out pace a race horse

- Dig on  the warm soil to get to the cooler ground below

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Phoenix, Arizona

- Home for over 6 million residents

- Population set to grow to 7.4million by 2020

- 13% of population over 65

- Sonoran desert is 311,000 km sq

- Cryptobiotic soil crust account for 70% of living ground cover

- Domesticated species such has Burro donkey have escaped into the wild

- Decline in native desert bighorn sheep population

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Grand Canyon Skywalk

- Located in Grand Canyon west

- Opened in 2004

- One mile above the Canyon and Colorado river

- Attracts 200,000 additional tourist a year

- Area had 50% unemployment

- Indigenous Hualapai tribe

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Aral Sea

- Cotton is the most prominent crop

- Fishing industry that once employed 40,000 no longer exists

- More jobs have been lost than created

- The sea is onl 1/4 of the size it was 50 years ago

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China's great green wall

- 1/3 of china's land area is affected by desertification

- 1970s, 5 billion tonnes of top soil being lost each year

- 1 million km sq of saline land

- Project introduced in 1978 under Deng Xiaoping

- 350,000 km sq of shelterbelts and plantation forests in North China

- Rainfall is 300-500mm per year and PET is 3x above rainfall

- Drought and frost resitant nature poplas

- Shelterbelts reduce windspeeds for 20x the heigh of the shelterbelt

- population has increased 500million since 1978

- 75% of trees planted die due to drough

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Kushab salinity project

- Thar desert northern pakistan on the bank of Jhelum river

- Annual rainfall 400mm

- Temperatures can exceed 40 degrees celsius

- Waterlogging let to poverty for 8000 families

- World bank put $69 million into the scheme

- Covers 360 km sq of cultivated land

- Waterlogged areas halved in the first two years of the project

- Per capita incomes increased from $46 to $195, 35% above official poverty level

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Cold environnments erosional landforms

- Glaslyn corrie in North Wales, Snowdonia. The steep headwall is called' devils kitchen'. South West prevailing wind.

- Crib goch arete, Snowdonia, North Wales

- Pyramidal peak on Mt Snowdon. 3 corries: Glaslyn, Llyn Croch and Cwrn Glas Mawr

- Nnant Francon glacial trough, Snowdonia

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Cold environments depositional landforms

- An eratic in Austwick North Yorkshire. Sandstone shoulder transported 1km by glaciers. Sits on a limestome pedestal. Proves ice streamed East and South East across the pennines.

- Blakeny esker is found in North Norfolk

- Outwash plain/ Kanes and Kettle holes found at Solheimajokull, Iceland. Kettle holes are 15m in diameter.

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Cold environments weathering landforms

- Iach Bun Rudhtair tor, Ben avon summit (cairngorms, North East scotland). Formed of 400Ma granit. 10m high.

- Blockfields, 1000m high on Ben Macdui summit

- Talus slope, 18000 years old, Lairig Ghru

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Purple saxifrage

- Found in iceland, arcitc tundra

- Plants flower in early spring

- It grows in low dense clumps

- The plants can self pollinate

- Leaves covered in dense hairs

- Stores food in tuber and rhizomes during summer (perennial)

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Timber wolf

- Arcitc tundra's main predator

- Hearing ability 20x sharper than human's

- Sense of smell 100x stronger than human's

- Arctics winds as cold as -20degrees celsius --> thick wooly fur coat

- Long guard hairs protect against moisture

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Snowy owl

- active both night and day during summer nesting season

- Can feed on mammals ranging from shrews to jack rabbits as well as birds

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Alaskan oil

- ANWR region, 80 000 km sq, 4300 oil wells

- Further extraction in region 1002 would provide for 4% of America's energy needs

- Locals recieve $1000/ yr

- Sub zero temperatures for 8 months of the year

- Trans alaskan pipeline, 1250km to Valdez, cost $8bn

- Lichen growth rate of just 1-2mm/yr

- Major BP oil spill 2006

- Spills persist for 30 years

- 130,000 carribuo in porcupine herd

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Nepal and Annapurna

- Lies within 26 and 30 degree latitudes, mountains occupy 80%

- Population of 28million

- 2003, GDP per capita was $1400

- 250,000 trekkers per year

- Tourists outnumber locals by 4:1

- Lodges on trekking routes generally burn 75kg/day

- Deforestation 3% per year

- Annupurna Conservation area project, 1986 covers 7629km sq (60,000 trekkers/yr)

- Tourists charged $7 fee to visit area

- Supports 40,000 locals

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- Ice sheet 2,450km thick and size of Europe

- 26,000 tourists per year

- tours cost £20,000per person

- M/S explorer cruise ship sank in 2008

- Antarcitc peninsula temperatures risen by 2.5 degrees celsius in past 70 years

- Antarctic Treaty signed in 1961

- Regulation of Antarctic Mineral extraction and IAATo

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Coastal erosional landforms

- Studland bay North of chalk Headland and Old Harry, Dorset south England. Chalk is more resisatnt whilst the sand and clays are less resistant

- Lulworth cover, 400m wide and 300m in depth, in Dorset

- Holderness Peninsula, Selwicks Bay, Flamborough head. 40m high cliffs made of continuous chalk overlain by boulder clay

- cliff retreat 0.3mm per year. 3 degree wave cut platform at Selwicks bay

- Stumps at Flaborough head

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Coastal depositional landforms

- Hurst castle spit in Hampshire, South england, 2km long

- 30km Chesil beach (tombolo), Dorset. longest shingle ridge in UK. Sea levels rose 120m

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Sea level change landforms

- UK, Rannoch Moore in Scotland is reboundaing at 2-3mm/yr. South is sinking at 2mm//yr

- Isle of Arran Sctoland, South West, off the Ayrshire coast. Land has rebounded 100m since last ice age  --> raised beaches

- Rias in hilly areas in Cornwall and Devon

- Fjords are found on West Coast of Scotland (Loch Torridon)

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Freiston Shore

- Lincolnshire

- 1983, 66Ha of saltmarsh reclaimed from the wash

- Maintaining sea defences would have cost £2.5m over next 50 years

- Managed realignment cost £2m

- Flood embankment breached 3 places in 2002

- 9 fish species within 13 months

- Attraces 57,000 visitors

- £150,000 into local economy

- Absorbs 50% of wave energy

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- North East Norfolk

- 1990 storm destroyed 330m of revetments

- Cliffs eroding at 5- 8 mm/ yr

- Population of 850

- No active intervention adopted

- By 2025, 25 homes, caravan park and access to the beach lost

- 2007 temporary rock bund extended from £50,000 from 'Buy a rock for Happisburgh' appeal

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Sea Palling

- Since 1992, 100,000 tonnnes of boulders have been put in front of sea wall

- Beach has been replenished with 1million/ metres cubed of sand

- Population of 550

- Protects Norfolk broads

- Broads generate £150million and represnets 10% of what tourists spend in the whole of the Esat

- National park with 3 nature reserves and 250 plant species

- Sea wall may need to be strengthened by 2055

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- Head of Bay of Bengal, occupies the Ganges Brahmaputra eustarene delta

- 36million live in coastal zone

- GDP per capita of $1900

- 445 000t of marine fish harvested a year   (86% shrimp_

- 2.5% of global shrimp farming generates $301million annual revenue

- 6000k sq of mangrove forest generates 11,800kg of harvestable fish per hectare

- Supports 500,000 people

- 18million tonnes of pesticide per year (6x more than 20 years ago)

1/4 of agrochemicals run into coastal waters

- 20km sq of mangrove lost each year

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Spain's concrete coast

- Andalucia has 90 golf coas and has plans to increase by 200

- Access to golf courses costs 40% more

- A typical golf course needs 700000m cubed of water/yr enough to supply a town of 25000

- Coast West of malaga has 3/4 of shoreline fully urbanises extending 1km inland

- El Algarrobico hotel scandal, 200Ha site adjacent to Cabo de Gatar Nijar national park

- 65000 properties owned by foreigners

- 30% increase in hotels built between 2000 and 2004

- 13% of waste water discharged untreated into the sea

- Failed to meet EU target of every town of 2000+ having sewage treatment plants

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