Skipton floods 1982
100+ homes flooded
Shop floors ruined
Rombalds moor catchment impermeable = quick surface run off
Sudden change in land use stopped catchment area meandering - made fast runoff
30mm rain in 2hrs
Debris forced water into main streets
England Floods 2007
Upper severn was 6x normal flow
Middle severn levels rose 4.5m above normal
Lower severn homes damaged and powerlines cut
over 300mm rain in 3months
Economic damage - £6million
Rural Case studies
Lake distirict - made popular through poetry
Priorat in Spain - vinyards helped rebrand their image.
Cornwall - The Eden Project/ Extreme academy at Watergate bay/Lobbs Farm - rural diversification
Borth - Artificial reef failed to attract surfers
Scotland Bottom-up strategy - New golfing area attracts a lot of money, founded by an American Property salesman.
Thetford National park - recreation
Cornwall broadband revolution - broadband and IT £12.5 million schem/ stakeholders involved BT Cornwall enterprise.
Urban Case Studies
Leicester & Curbitia(brazil) - sustainable cities
Telford Technology Park
Bridgewater Concert Hall + Trafford Centre Manchester - Flagship Development
German Market B'ham - themed event
Barcelo Raval Hotel (barcelona) - Partial success
The Public Art Gallery (west brom) - failure
London Olympics 2012 - legacy success and failure.
Evaluation of flood protection in Shrewsbury: Response to floods in Autumn 2000.
Upstream Containment: Allowing water from river 7's main tributary to flood land upstream rather than Shrewsbury – too costly £18million would need to be paid to landowners but wetland could be environmentally beneficial – sustainable and supported by wildlife groups.
Channel Dredging: Hard engineering in meanders not considered feasible as channel would silt up again – environmentally damaging.
Local Defences & Urban Drainage modification: Building wall defences, barriers, inflatable dams. - short-term and cost effective £3.1m – favoured by environment agency.
Fieldwork and Research into Increased risk of Floo
River Valency, Boscastle Cornwall.
- Clinometer - measure relief of land, steep = more suceptible (had 45' angle)
- Bifurcation ratio and river discharge rate using equation distance/time
- Interview environment agency - Boscastle had only had mini floods since 05.
- OS Maps + GIS - plot tributaries - risk increased in the areas with no flood defences.
- Read published articles + official reports of previous floods - flood risk increase, population decreased by 10%.
How Global Warming increases risk of extreme weath
Drought: Increasing temp changes global air circulation and ocean currents. Areas with less rain than usual suffer drought e.g. Murray Darling Basin.
Hurricanes: For every 1'C rise in ocean temp, hurricane rainfall increases by 6-18% and wind speeds increase by 8%
Storms: Areas have more frequent and severe storms.
Poor land management increases risk:
- Deforstation reduces interception
- Agricultural practices
Passage of Depression
Warm front: Warmer maritime air from the south (Bay of Biscae) collides with colder air (Tropics) which is lighter and warmer. This creates a boundary and causes rainfall.
Warm sector: Middle of the depression, warmer, lower pressure so calmer conditions.
Cold front: Colder anticlockwise air triggers heavy rain and as pressure rises, skies clear.
Occluded front: Faster cold front meets warm - join - do not move to ground level.
Low Pressure = ANTI clockwise
Hight Pressure = CLOCKWISE
Impacts: Drought SE Australia 2002
Murray Darling Basin worst hit
- Water use restrictions - 3m people - River Murray allocation reduced.10,000 farming families forced to leave in 5yrs - couldn't make living.
- Increased ground water salinity in 35 towns made buildings unstable - lost value.
- Financial hardship - mental health
- Vegetation loss and soil erosion - wildfires
- Depleted rivers - outbreak in toxic algae - destroyed habitats
- Rice production fell 2% which increased food prices.
Severity: Lowest rainfall in 117yrs, part of basin in drought since 2001 - take years of rainfall to recover.
In an MEDC - high economic costs, Basin is high agricultural area (34% Gross production)
Vulnerable poorer people - food prices, large number of farmers.
Hurricane Katrina '2005
- Cat 5 storm, 85% deaths in Louisiana
- 1,836 deaths, over 1000 moved location, 300,000 homes destroyed
- Storm surges - beach erosion (Gulf beaches) cosatal habitats lost
- 30 Oil platforms were destroyed, crops, $300bn damage, 230,000 jobs lost.
Impact worse through:
Inadequate levees - New Orleans is mostly below sea level, during storm surges 8m high, levees failed due to incomplete sections - poor construction 2/3rds of deaths could have been avoided.
Flooding, Carlisle Cumbria 05 - River Eden
Social, Economic and Environmental:
- 3 dead, 300+ homeless in 1yr, schools severely flooded - education affected.
- £100bn damage, 350 businesses shut, 70,000 adresses no electricity, United Biscuits flooded in 3 meters.
- Increased river bank erosion - rivers polluted.
Factors influencing impact:
- River Eden flowed at highest ever 1520 cumecs, flood waters rose 1m higher than previous highest.
- MEDC: Defences protected 6,000 properties.
- Failure of landlines - unable to call assistance
- Low income people unable to have insurance.