Unit 2 Rebranding Places

Skipton June'82

30mm in 2hrs

Rombalds Moor Catchment - impermeable = quick surface run off

Sudden change in land use prevented catchment area meandering - increasing runoff

debris forced water into main streets

100+ homes flooded and Shops floors ruined

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  • Created on: 20-01-13 16:34

Skipton floods 1982

100+ homes flooded

Shop floors ruined

Rombalds moor catchment impermeable = quick surface run off

Sudden change in land use stopped catchment area meandering - made fast runoff

 30mm rain in 2hrs

Debris forced water into main streets

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England Floods 2007

Upper severn was 6x normal flow

Middle severn levels rose 4.5m above normal

Lower severn homes damaged and powerlines cut

over 300mm rain in 3months

Economic damage - £6million

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Rural Case studies

Lake distirict - made popular through poetry

Priorat in Spain - vinyards helped rebrand their image.

Cornwall - The Eden Project/ Extreme academy at Watergate bay/Lobbs Farm - rural diversification

Borth - Artificial reef failed to attract surfers

Scotland Bottom-up strategy - New golfing area attracts a lot of money, founded by an American Property salesman.

Thetford National park - recreation

Cornwall broadband revolution - broadband and IT £12.5 million schem/ stakeholders involved BT Cornwall enterprise.

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Urban Case Studies

Leicester & Curbitia(brazil) - sustainable cities

Telford Technology Park

Bridgewater Concert Hall + Trafford Centre Manchester - Flagship Development

Manchester/Sheffield Transport

German Market B'ham - themed event

Barcelo Raval Hotel (barcelona) - Partial success

The Public Art Gallery (west brom) - failure

London Olympics 2012 - legacy success and failure.

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Flood Protection

 Evaluation of flood protection in Shrewsbury: Response to floods in Autumn 2000.
Upstream Containment: Allowing water from river 7's main tributary to flood land upstream rather than Shrewsbury – too costly £18million would need to be paid to landowners but wetland could be environmentally beneficial – sustainable and supported by wildlife groups.

Channel Dredging: Hard engineering in meanders not considered feasible as channel would silt up again – environmentally damaging.

Local Defences & Urban Drainage modification: Building wall defences, barriers, inflatable dams. - short-term and cost effective £3.1m – favoured by environment agency.

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Fieldwork and Research into Increased risk of Floo

River Valency, Boscastle Cornwall.


  • Clinometer - measure relief of land, steep = more suceptible (had 45' angle)
  • Bifurcation ratio and river discharge rate using equation distance/time
  • Interview environment agency - Boscastle had only had mini floods since 05.


  • OS Maps + GIS - plot tributaries - risk increased in the areas with no flood defences.
  • Read published articles + official reports of previous floods - flood risk increase, population decreased by 10%.
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How Global Warming increases risk of extreme weath

Drought: Increasing temp changes global air circulation and ocean currents. Areas with less rain than usual suffer drought e.g. Murray Darling Basin.

Hurricanes: For every 1'C rise in ocean temp, hurricane rainfall increases by 6-18% and wind speeds increase by 8%

Storms: Areas have more frequent and severe storms.

Poor land management increases risk:

  • Urbanisation
  • Deforstation reduces interception
  • Agricultural practices
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Passage of Depression

Warm front: Warmer maritime air from the south (Bay of Biscae) collides with colder air (Tropics) which is lighter and warmer. This creates a boundary and causes rainfall.

Warm sector: Middle of the depression, warmer, lower pressure so calmer conditions.

Cold front: Colder anticlockwise air triggers heavy rain and as pressure rises, skies clear.

Occluded front: Faster cold front meets warm - join - do not move to ground level.

Low Pressure = ANTI clockwise

Hight Pressure = CLOCKWISE

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Impacts: Drought SE Australia 2002

Murray Darling Basin worst hit

  • Water use restrictions - 3m people - River Murray allocation reduced.10,000 farming families forced to leave in 5yrs - couldn't make living.
  • Increased ground water salinity in 35 towns made buildings unstable - lost value.
  • Financial hardship - mental health
  • Vegetation loss and soil erosion - wildfires
  • Depleted rivers - outbreak in toxic algae - destroyed habitats
  • Rice production fell 2% which increased food prices.

Severity: Lowest rainfall in 117yrs, part of basin in drought since 2001 - take years of rainfall to recover.

In an MEDC - high economic costs, Basin is high agricultural area (34% Gross production)

Vulnerable poorer people - food prices, large number of farmers.

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Hurricane Katrina '2005

  • Cat 5 storm, 85% deaths in Louisiana
  • 1,836 deaths, over 1000 moved location, 300,000 homes destroyed
  • Storm surges - beach erosion (Gulf beaches) cosatal habitats lost
  • 30 Oil platforms were destroyed, crops, $300bn damage, 230,000 jobs lost.

Impact worse through:

Inadequate levees - New Orleans is mostly below sea level, during storm surges 8m high, levees failed due to incomplete sections - poor construction 2/3rds of deaths could have been avoided.

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Flooding, Carlisle Cumbria 05 - River Eden

Social, Economic and Environmental:

  • 3 dead, 300+ homeless in 1yr, schools severely flooded - education affected.
  • £100bn damage, 350 businesses shut, 70,000 adresses no electricity, United Biscuits flooded in 3 meters.
  • Increased river bank erosion - rivers polluted.

Factors influencing impact:

  • River Eden flowed at highest ever 1520 cumecs, flood waters rose 1m higher than previous highest.
  • MEDC: Defences protected 6,000 properties.
  • Failure of landlines - unable to call assistance
  • Low income people unable to have insurance.
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