Complete Cold Environments Revision Pack

types of climates; processes; features; why are cold environments fragile?; issues of development in cold environments; creating sustainable development for cold environments

Case studies included:- Climate and ecosystems in the Alps; Europe's permafrost; Oil exploration in Siberia; Exxon Valdex oil spill; Ski tourism in Europe; The Alpine convention- the Alps; The Antarctica Ban- Antarctica

mini case study examples have also been given as part of the features section to provide geographical examples in the exam

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  • Created by: Heleena07
  • Created on: 05-05-14 15:57
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Reasons why environments are cold
· high latitude · Fewer daylight hours
· High altitude · Lots of ice
· In the middle of · Reflection
· Sun angle
· Less water vapour…read more

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Glacial Climates
· High altitudes- Himalayan mountains.
· High latitude- The Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets (both above
60' latitude)
· Land permanently covered in ice
· Very cold and dry- Antarctic temps
· Katabatic winds
· Winter temps= -70°C to -25°C
· Summer temps= -40°C to -2°C…read more

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Periglacial Climates
· Snow and ice but not all year round
· Temps constantly below freezing but not covered in ice- there is a
layer of permafrost on or below the surface
· High latitudes- low insolation
· High altitudes
· Albedo- they reflect a lot of solar radiation
· Precipitation levels are low
· Affected by high pressure conditions which reduces rainfall…read more

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Mountain (upland) Climates
· Were once covered in ice but aren't anymore
· Upland areas may remain periglacial- Alps and
· They are cool in temp- lose about 1°C every 100m up
· They are wet due to orthographic rainfall
· Above the tree line
· Can exist at any latitude…read more

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Warm-based glacier:
· It's warmer because of the heat from friction
· Ice at bottom melts and acts as a lubricant for the glacier to move downhill
· Ice at the surface melts if the temp reaches 0°C and meltwater moves down through
the glacier
Cold-based glacier:
· The base is cold- ice is frozen to the bottom of the valley= little movement
· There's hardly any melting on the surface
· They don't cause much erosion
Glaciers crack as they move down the valley:
· Stresses and strains cause cracks and crevasses in the glacier
· Stress can be caused by extensional and compressional flow, calving or tension
between the ice attached to the valley sides and back wall and the rest of the glacier
· The tension caused by the glacier pulling away from the ice produces as semicircular
crevasse at the back of the glacier called the bergschurnd…read more

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