geography case studies

antelope slot canyon
Arizona, ephemeral river >25mm per hour, Navajo sandstone, 30m deep
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monument valley inselbergs
Utah, shinarump caprock, deshelley sandstone, organ shale, 150mm ppt sept - june, tallest 300m, totem pole = famous spire
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west USA, 50% gas, 19% nuc, 13% renew, 10% hydro, 8% coal, HEP 21% consumed, solar 1% supply 250 hectares mojave solar park, wind 1.5% 14,000 turbines, biomass 2% 28 small plants
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grand canyon
Arizona, exogenous river Colorado, 1800m deep, 277 miles long, skywalk - march 2004, David Jin and Hualpi tribe, 50/50, cost $22million
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sonoran desert
south west USA, 30 degrees autumn, >200mm ppt, cities replace desert, lower NPP, ground water used, fences built, swimming pools, off road vehicles, overgrazing, buffer grass replaces native cotton woods
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plant adaptations
cryptobiotic crust, 70% area, 250 years to recover, saguaro catcus, lose 80% water, holds 5 tonnes, wide roots - creosote bush, high SA:V stomata close during day, lateral tap roots - verbena, annuals, drought avoiding not surviving
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animal adaptations
gila monster, nocturnal, burrow, waste as pellets - jack rabbit, large ears, pale fur - kangaroo rat, nocturnal, large cheeks - round tail ground squirrel, hibernates during hottest months
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bridal veil falls
hanging valley, sharp drop, misfit river, small glacier meets large, 188m drop
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namib desert
west africa, <30mm ppt , fog, 55 million years old, 50 - 120km by 1200km, south east prevailing wind, ventifacts, desert pavement, yardangs - megas = 20km by 1km, 500m high, luderitz and mouth of orange river
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niger delta
mid west africa, 500million tonnes oil spilled, 4 per week, $14billion wasted/ stolen, 20,000 hectares mangroves lost 1989 - 2003. breading site 80% west african fish, 95% export earnings, 90% unemployment, 60% in poverty, 1995 sarokiwa MOSOP, MEND
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12 members, 1973 embargo, prices up from $3 to $11, 2009 demand fell, cut production 7% prices up $60 to $80
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solar cookers
darfur refugees, may 2006, Iridimi camp - 17,000, less deforestation, more time, safer, can cook, one meal on open fire = one packet of cigarretes
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42% coal, 24% oil, 24% combust, 7% gas, 2% renew, 1% nuc, half population employed in agriculture, 20% of GDP, 90% roads poor quality, 600 million have no electricity acess, 5th largest consumer, 800million rely on combust
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solheimajokull outlet glacier
iceland, kettle holes 15m, filll with water, kames - stratified and sorted sand and gravel, sediment from glacier, builds up in front, remains even after glacier gone
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khushab salinity project
northern Pakistan, Jhelum river, Thar desert, semi arid 400mm ppt, 40 degrees may - july, $69million from world bank, 360km, halved water logged areas in 2 years, income $46 to $194, 34% above nat poverty level, 1989 - 1994, 800 farming families
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great green wall
1978 north china 1/3rd china affected by desertification, 1million km saline land, 5billion tonnes topsoil lost, 350,000km shelterbelt by 2050, 130,000km so far, korain = 42,000km = denmark, 300mm ppt, evap 3x higher, aim to rebuild area, sustainable
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china coal
18% coal reserves, imports from australia - reserves in north west, 40% rail network transports coal, 2012 major railway west to east opened, G!!) expressway, 10 day jam 2010, designed for 6,000 per day, carries 80,000
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three gorges dam
Yangtze river china, 18,200mW power, 15 million people, 1.5 million hectares of land protected, 100,000km fresh clean water storage, 32 generators, coal alternative would create 100,000,000 tonnes CO2
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russia gas
80% european gas supplies pass through ukraine, 2008 russia halves supplies - owed £1.5 billion, 2007 transit pipe russia to belarus cut, 96% of polish supply, 1/4 of germanies gas, 2009 all russian oil cut off, 20% of EU supplies
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aral sea
90% water from Amu Darya and Syr Darya, irrigated areas from 2.9million to 7.2 million hectares, 43 million tonnes saline particles, lost 2/3rds volume, 10% of size, fishing - 40,000 tonnes per year gone, 80% uzbekistan irrigated area saline
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48% HEP, 43% nuc, biomass 5%, fossil fuels 4%, 6th higest GDP, 25% renewable in sweden, EU = 6%, 62% homes heated by biomass, 50% renewable by 2020, lulealv river 10% power, 10 nuclear reactors,10% oppose nuclear, first reactor shut 1991
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vatnajokull ice cap
southern Iceland, sandur outwash plain, graded gravels sand and clay, arranged in sorted - big to small, and stratifed way - layered
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crystal peak
Utah, tafoni, 4m wide, can be 20m, salt crystalisation, carbonation and saltation
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panamint range
death valley, california, bajada (line of alluvial fans), single channel leaves canyon, and widens, slows down so deposits load - largest particles first, smallest last in graded fashion - famous for size and shape
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bonneville salt flats
utah, playa / salt flats, 40 miles, up to five feet thick, high evaporation rates so salt drawn to surface, layers build up over time
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Hackbridge, London, reduces average household energy needs by 20%, heating demand down 90%, 25% reduction in electricity demand, 81% reduction in heating, 64% reduction car mileage, 45% reduction electricity use
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lake district, 15.8 million visitors, £125 million income, 11,000 jobs, 17% houses 2nd homes, 4% in LD, house prices 24% > average: income, £26,000, house £260,000, income cumbria 12% < av.coniston 98, 2007 = 75, 2009 = 52, 20,000 res 37% employed T
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guided busway
opened 7th august 2011, every 10 minutes, 40 minutes st ives to cambridge, cost £181 million, meant to open april 2009, and cost £150 million, tickets pricey - £3.60
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norfolk, close to A12, house prices 10x higher than average, 35 hectares of land lost, 646 homes built, 66 people 81 properties at risk from flooding river Ore, 2km hedgerow lost, 50% drop in farmland bird population since 1970
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A14 most congested 2 lane road, 40% more traffic today than in 1993, £5 million from government 2003 - 2007, 48 traffic calming solutions in 9 villages, willingham 2 kerb builds outs, 30 mph camera, 2 zebra crossings
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blakeney esker
north norfolk esker 3.5km long, 20m above surrounding land, meltwater tunnels under high pressure during summer, drop sediment when flow stops in winter, accumulates after many years, preserved if glacier stays in position then retreats rapidly
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lake district ribbon lake, 18km long, 1.5km wide, 66m deep, glacier travels over soft rock, erodes more easily, carves deeply, deposits moraine at one end, retreats, hole fills with water
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north wales, corrie, north east facing, backwall 450m nivation allows ice to collect and compact, forms glacier, abrasion freeze thaw weathering plucking steepens, abrasion deepends, usually north facing - shielded from sun, rock lip - more force
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pyramidal peak, north wales, three corries form back to back, unusual for them to form in three different directions, peak 1,085m high
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crib goch
arete, north wales knife edge where two corries form back to back, 62m high backwalls
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toll road
A14 cambridgeshire, cost £22 million, 32km strech, new bypasses, stop rat runners, charge for use of A14, unpopular, bad for haulage companies, expensive, will take a long time to implement, better to widen
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widening A14
cambridgeshire, traffic volume expected to grow by 15% to 2020, £22 million investment, add extra lane eastbound, estimated £690 million to widen both sides Ellington to fen ditton, open in stages 2015 - 2016, reduce congetion, viaduct godmanchester
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nant ffracon valley
north wales, glacial trough, sides up to 830m, v shaped valley, interlocking spurs cut by glacier, truncated spurs, U shaped valley, abrasion and plucking, valley floor 500m wide, 200m above sea level
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rural decline lake district
north west england, cumbria, >2500mm ppt, 6 of 11 post offices remain, 1991 - 2001, depopulation, wythop 28%, borrowdale 13%, highest proportion 45 - 64 allerdale, 20% local shops lost 1995 - 2000, LDNPA 19951, 1998 - 2004 655 restored
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Braesteads farm
crossdale hoggast, patterdale, overlooked by striding edge, £54,000 grant to restore
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hyper = <100mm, arid = 100 - 300mm, semi = 300 - 600mm, atmospheric circulation (hadley cell air under pressure doesnt RCC), cold ocean currents (benguela), relief and rain shadow, prevailing winds, continentality
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erosion = deflation, abrasion, attrition - transportation = suspension, saltation, surface creep - deposition = inputs exceed outputs, loose sand, wind, obstacles, dunes - obstacle, builds up, falls down slip face, moves in direction of prevail wind
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breaking down in situ, physical = insolation, salt weathering, freeze thaw - chemical = wetting and drying, hydration, oxidation
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achieving a balance between social, economic and environmental needs of a place to ensure it has a long term future, balance between conservation - leaving as is, not touching and exploitation - using in a fashion whereby future isn't regarded
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net primary productivity
amount of energy made available by plants to animals, only at the herbivore level, and is expressed as kg/m2/yr.
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degradation of formerly productive land to the point where desert like conditions prevail, causes: natural cycles, time scales, human factors = deforestation, soil cant contain moisture, no water to evaporate so no ppt forms, exposed land, rock sands
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energy mix
the range of energy sources used by a country or region, either renewable or non-renewable
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rural areas characteristics
social - tightly knit, socially and ethnically homogeneous, family centred, conservative, economic = farming and commuters, environment = sparse, open peaceful, big gardens large houses
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christaller central place theory
assumes: all land flat, equal incomes and transport costs, even purchasing power, 3rd order central place large catchment, 2nd order small eg, market town, 1st eg. village very small catchment, internet changes it, superstores big influence
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key terms
catchment area = area over which settlement exerts influence, range of good = distance people willing to travel to purchase, high order = expensive, infrequent, low order = everyday, threshol pop. = minimum no, of people before service/good provided
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undeveloped rural
30 - 80% pop, high birth rates - nat. increase 2.5%, famine and disease, 40 - 80% subsistence farmers, limited jobs, poor services, under $1 per day, 3 - 4 hours out
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developed rural
10 - 30% pop, mostly 50 plus age, under 10% employed iin farming, most commute, struggle to provide services, most own cars, pockets of poverty - mostly well off, optimistic future
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rurality curve
100% - LDC rural subsistence, 80% - LEDC urban migration, 60% - RIC young migrate, 40% - NIC urban sprawl, 10% MEDC lowest % rural pop, begins to rise again
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push factors
high house prices, small houses, high crime rates, lots of traffic, no tranquillity, too much pollution
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pull factors
large peaceful outdoors, open fields, fresh air, large gardens good for families, good village community, close to friends and family
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glacial climate
snow and ice all year, very cold very dry, katabatic winds - cold dense mountain air cools land, latitude > 66.6 N/S, -60 degrees ice sheet, -10 degrees coast, winter = -70 to -25 degrees, summer = -40 to -2 degrees
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periglacial climate
significant ice covering for most not all of year, low rainfall - cold descending air winter = -50, summer = +20 degrees, little insolation, temperature down 1 degree every 100m climbed, albedo effect - reflect 60%
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mountain climate
areas once covered but now free from snow and ice, still exert influence, cool and wet - relief and orographic rainfall, air forced to rise, cools condenses, precipitates, reflects 10% light
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


monument valley inselbergs


Utah, shinarump caprock, deshelley sandstone, organ shale, 150mm ppt sept - june, tallest 300m, totem pole = famous spire

Card 3




Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


grand canyon


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


sonoran desert


Preview of the front of card 5
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