Chapter 5: Food Spoilage and Contamination- Keywords

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Micro-organisms.
Tiny forms of life, only visible under a microscope. Plants and animals.
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Food spoilage.
Making food unfit/unsafe to eat.
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Contaminate.
Making a food unsafe to eat by allowing it to come into contact with micro-organisms that will grow multiply in it.
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Pathogenic.
A micro-organism that is harmful to humans and capable of causing food poisoning.
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Food Poisoning.
An illness caused by micro-organisms contaminating food.
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High-risk foods.
Foods that contain a lot of moisture and nutrients, and easily allow the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Also called perishable foods.
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Enzyme.
Natural substances in living things that speed up reactions. They are biological catalysts.
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Catalyst.
A substance that speeds up the rate of reaction.
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Ripening.
The process of a fruit/vegetable maturing so that it is ready to eat.
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Enzymic browning.
The discolouration of a fruit/vegetable due to the reaction of enzymes with plant cell substances and oxygen from the air.
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Oxidation.
When substances pick up/combine with oxygen.
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Germinate.
The process that happens when spores from a mould starts to grow on food.
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Pasteurisation.
Heating fresh milk to 72°c for 15 seconds in order to kill micro-organisms that may be in it.
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Homogenised.
Forcing milk under high pressure through a fine sieve, to break the fat up into tiny droplets. They stay suspended in the milk and don't separate out into a layer of cream.
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Danger Zone.
The range of temperatures (5-63°c) that is just right for bacteria to multiply rapidly.
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Spore.
A special protective coating some bacteria grow if the conditions aren't right for them to multiply.
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Germinate.
When the conditions become right, the protective spore breaks open and the bacteria becomes active again.
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Cross-contamination.
How bacteria are spread from one source (work surface, raw chicken, hands) onto some food.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Making food unfit/unsafe to eat.

Back

Food spoilage.

Card 3

Front

Making a food unsafe to eat by allowing it to come into contact with micro-organisms that will grow multiply in it.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A micro-organism that is harmful to humans and capable of causing food poisoning.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

An illness caused by micro-organisms contaminating food.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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