What is Food Spoilage?
Food spoilage is the natural process caused by bacteria, mould, fungi and yeasts. Once a food item ispicked, harvested , slaughtered, stored or cooked, microorganisms will start the decay process. This is the stage that food becomes unsafe to eat.
Signs of food spoilage:
- Colour change - flavour (acidic)
- Odour - sour, bitter , sharp, sickly etc.
- Wrinkly / Hard / Dry
What causes food spoilage?
- Chemical reactions - The reactions between food, oxygen and moisture.
- Time- speed of spoilage is determine by hygiene, correct storage and temperature.
- Rodents and Insects - leave behind bacteria, urine and faeces.
Food and Bacteria Contamination
Sources of FOOD CONTAMINATION
Physical - Something has dropped into food such as a hair, jewellery, finger nails, flies, platers etc. which can cause choking, broken teeth and internal cuts and bleeding.
Chemical - Cleaning product and pesticides which can cause liver damage, internal burns and nerve damage.
Biological - Bacteria, viruses, moulds, ad fung which can cause food poisoning.
Sources of BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION
- Humans - poor hygiene
- Raw meat - bacteria lives in gut of animals and can be contaminated when animal is slaughtered.
- Dust, dirt and waste food
- Pests- rats/ mice
- Heat = Kills most microorganisms and stops enzyme activity. eg. pasteurisation of milk.
- Freezing = Microorganisms become inactive at very cold temps, but will reproduce once defrosted. eg. frozen meat, fish and desserts.
- Drying = Microorganisms need moisture to reproduce. eg. pot noodles and coffee.
- Removing air = Need oxygen to reproduce, canning stops oxygen access. eg. crisps and beans
- Chemicals = The pH levels needed for bacterial growth are changed. eg. pickles, chutneys and jams.
Why is packaging used?
Packaging is used to protect food items from damage, minimise bacterial contaminatin and make the products easier to transport and store.
Food origin and Food miles
What are food miles?
Food miles are the distance our food travels to get to our houses. 40% of our food is imported from foreign countries like Ecuador.
Benefits of importing food:
- In poorer countries, money from crops can send children to school
- Young peoplewant to stay in farming.
- Keeping rural communities in existence.
- Importiing crops = investment in the future.
Problemsof importig food:
- Less money is spent on crops in the UK.
- Global warming
- More extreme natural disasters.
Name 3 ways to reduce food miles...
Buy locally, Grow your own vegetables and Eat seasonally.