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Niacin
A water soluble B vitamin which is concerned with the release of energy of carbohydrate by oxidation. Sources include meat, cereal, yeast, liver. Added to flour.
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Novel foods
Ingredients and foods which contain chemical substances which have not been previously used in foods. also ingredients or foods which have undergone a process which has not previously been sold- causes changes that alter nutritional values.
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None Starch Polysaccharide
The indigestible part of food; cellulose (cell wall of plants)
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Nutritional labelling
The information relating to nutrients and energy in the food which must be given on packaging.
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Obesity
Excessive fatness. Measured as a ratio of weight to height.
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Offal
The parts of an animal removed from carcase in the process of dressing it- tongue, liver, heart, kidney, brain. Provides a good source of iron and vitamin D.
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Omega 3
A mixture of triglycerides rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids.
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Organic foods
Plants grown without the use of synthetic pesticides fungicides or organic fertilizers- must be prepared without preservatives.
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Organoleptic
Sensory qualities- Texture, flavour, aroma, sight and touch
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Oseteomalacia
A disease caused by a lack of vitamin D- Adult version of rickets.
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Oxalic acid
A substance present in rhubarb, spinach, chocolate and nuts which is poisonous if consumed in large amounts.
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Oxidative rancidity
Occurs in unsaturated fats and oils. The reaction is initiated by the presence of some metals, untra violet light and high temperatures.
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Pasteurization
The process of prolonging the keeping quality of products such as milk by heating to destroy harmful bacteria.
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Pathogens
Bacteria which cause disease.
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PH
A measure of acidity and alkalinity.
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Plasticity
Capacity of a fat to spread.
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Pectin
A complex polysaccharide formed by some plants. It forms gela in water and is used in the setting of jam.
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Pellagra
A disease caused by a deficiency of Niacin.
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Pepsin
An enzyme which hydrolyses protein during digestion.
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Peptide bond
A link between amino acids used in the formation of dipeptides polypeptides and proteins.
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Phytate
A substance present in cereals, some nuts and legumes which can bind calcium, iron and zinc into insoluble substances.
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Pigments
Usually refers to naturally occurring colours: chlorphylls- Green. Caternoids- Yellow, orange and red. Anthocynins- red to blue.
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Polypeptides
Long chains of amino acids used to form proteins.
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Poly saccharides
Formed from varying numbers of monosaccharide units. Usually insoluble in cold water.
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Polyunsaturates
Term used to describe polyunsaturated fatty acids.
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Preservation
The protection of perishable foods from detoriation by removing the conditions neccesary for the growth of micro organisms.
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Preservatives
Substances added to some processed foods to prevent spoilage.
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Probiotics
Live micro organisms which are added to foods and thought to restore the microbial balancein the intestine.
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Proteins
Essential constituents of all cells: composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur.
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Prototype
A model from which copies can be made.
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Pulses
The dried seeds of legumes; Peas, beans and lentils. The provide a good source of protein and B vitamins.
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Pyridoxine
A B complex vitamin.. involved in the metabolism of amino acids.
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Quality Assurance
Ensuring that products are of good quality.
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Quality Control
Stages and procedures in processing which ensure that products are safe
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Rancidity
A chemical change caused by oxidation or hydrolysis. It causes ‘off’ flavours to develop. Rapid dough processes: Mechanical action and oxidation speed up the traditional method of preparing bread dough.
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Rennet
A substance which is extracted from a calf’s stomach and used in the preparation of cheese and junket
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Retinol
Vitamin A. Main sources are liver, fish liver oils, dairy produce and margarine.
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Retrogradation (of starch)
the opposite of gelatinisation. The starch undergoes a colloidal change and contracts due to the loss of water. Stabilizers are used in processed foods to reduce retrogradation.
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Riboflavin
Vitamin B2. Concerned with the release of energy from carbohydrates.
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Rickets
A deficiency disease affecting children, caused by a lack of vitamin D.
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Roughage
Dietary fibre.
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Saccharin
An artificial intense sweetener.
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Salmonella
A type of bacterial food poisoning.
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Scaling up
Increasing a recipe for bulk production while keeping the ratio and proportions the same.
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Smoking
A method of preserving meat poultry and fish.
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Stabilizers
Substances which absorb water and are often used as thickening agents; many can produce gels and also act as emulsifiers.
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Starch
A polysaccharide composed from units of glucose.
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Sterilisation
A method of increasing the keeping quality of products by destroying all micro organisms by heating to a high temperature.
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Sweeteners-bulk
Used to replace sucrose and glucose syrups. Used in the manufacture of soft drinks and sugar confectionery.
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Syneresis
Usually refers to eggs; if overcooked, the proteins shrink as they coagulate and separate from the watery liquid.
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Textured vegetable protein
Usually protein produced from defatted soya beans. It is either extruded or formed into chunks. Used as an alternative protein and as a meat extender.
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Thiamin
Vitamin B1. Sources include eggs, meat, pulses and yeast. A deficiency causes the disease beri-beri.
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Tolerance levels
The levels within which a process works safely and effectively.
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Ultra Heat Treatment: (UHT)
The high temperature, short time sterilization of milk known as long life milk.
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Ultra Violet Irradation
Used for surface sterilization, for tenderising and ageing meat, curing cheese and preventing the growth of moulds on the surface of baked products.
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Viscosity
The thickness of a liquid or a mixture, such as a sauce.
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Waxing
The coating of fruit and vegetables with an edible wax to prevent loss of moisture,improve appearance and prolong shelf life.
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Xanthan gum
Polysaccharide produced by bacterial fermentation and used as a thickening agent to form gels and increase viscosity.
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Yeast
Fungi which are involved in fermentation and spoilage of sweetened or salted products. A source of vitamin B and protein.
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Card 2

Front

Ingredients and foods which contain chemical substances which have not been previously used in foods. also ingredients or foods which have undergone a process which has not previously been sold- causes changes that alter nutritional values.

Back

Novel foods

Card 3

Front

The indigestible part of food; cellulose (cell wall of plants)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The information relating to nutrients and energy in the food which must be given on packaging.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Excessive fatness. Measured as a ratio of weight to height.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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