changing urban environments

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what is urbanisation?
urbanisation is the growth in the proportion of a country's population living in urban areas.
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what is rural urban migration?
the movement of people from countryside to the cities.
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what does rural urban migration cause?
urbanisation in richer and poorer countries.
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why do people in poorer countries move from rural areas to cities?
theres often a shortage of services in rural areas. also because they believe the standard of living is better. there are more jobs in urban areas. industry is attracted to cities because theres a larger work force and better infrastructure in rural.
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why do people in richer countries more from rural areas to cities?
most urbanisation in rich countries occurred during the Industrial and the Agricultural Revolutions - machinery began to replace farm labour in rural areas and jobs were created in factories in urban areas.in the 20th century people left city areas
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which type of people usually go to live in cities?
young people, to find work. they then have children in the cities which increases the proportion of the population living in urban areas. also better health care in urban areas.
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what are the four different parts that make up a city?
CBD, The inner city, The suburbs and The rural-urban fringe. they all have different land uses.
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what are the uses of the CBD (central business district)?
its usually found right in the centre of a city. its the commercial centre of the city with shops & offices & its where transport routes meet. it has very high land values as theres a lot of competition for space. buildings are tall & few people live
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what are the uses of the inner city?
this part is found around the CBD. it has a mix of poorer quality housing & older industrial buildings. the inner city can be quite run down & deprived but theres also newer housing & industry where derelict land has been cleared and redeveloped.
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what are the uses of the suburbs?
these are housing areas found toward the edge of the city land here is cheaper & its still close enough to commute into the centre for work. in the UK & USA middle-class families tend to live in the suburbs because theres less crime and pollution.
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what are the uses of the rural-urban fringe?
this is the part right at the edge of a city, where there are both urban land uses (e.g.factories) and rural land uses (e.g.farming). here you tend to find fewer, larger houses.
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what is the problem with the 'city structure'?
sometimes the land use of each part doesnt mate the model - real cities are slightly different. they can also change over time shopping centres in the UK have been build in out-of-town locations.
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problems for cities in richer counties?
a shortage of good quality housing. run down CBDs. traffic congestion & pollution from cars. ethnic segregation ( people from different religions and races not mixing).
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what ways are the shortages of housing being handled?
urban renewal scheme. new towns and relocation incentives.
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describe the urban renewal scheme?
these are government strategies first widely used in the 1990s. they encourage investment in new housing, services and employment in derelict inner city areas. a successful example is the dockland development in liverpool
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describe the new towns idea?
brand new towns have been built to house the overspill populations from existing towns and cities where there was a shortage of housing. milton keynes the one of the most well know examples of a new town.
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describe the relocation incentives idea?
thee are used to encourage people living in large council houses to move out of the urban areas. this frees up houses in urban areas for other people. e.g.working families.
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what is being down to revitalise CBDs?
pedestrianised areas to make them safer and nicer for shoppers, improving access with better public transport links & car parks and improving public areas e.g. parks.
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what are the solutions to help reduce traffic?
improving pubic transport, increasing car parking charges in city centres, bus priority lanes, pedestrianisation of central areas.
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what are the reasons for ethnic segregation?
people prefer to live close to others with the same background and religion. people love near to services that are important to their culture. people from the same ethnic background are often restricted in where they can live in the same way.
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strategies to support the multicultural nature of urban areas?
making sure everyone can access information about the different services. improving communication between all parts of the community. providing interpreters at places like hospitals. making sure there are suitable services for the different cultures.
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ways to improve squatter settlements?
self-help schemes, site & service schemes and local authority schemes.
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what are self-help schemes?
these involve the government and local people working together to improve life in the settlement. the government supplies building materials and local people use them to build their own homes. this helps to provide better housing.
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what are site and service schemes?
people pay a small amount of rent for a site & they can borrow money to buy building materials to build or improve a house on their plot. the rent money is then used to provide basic services for the area.
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what are local authority schemes?
these are founded by the local government and are about improving the temporary accommodation built by residents
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what are the environmental problems of rapid urbanisation and industrialisation?
waste disposal problems - people in cities create a lot of waste, more air pollution - cause by burning fuel, exhaust fumes & factories and more water pollution - water carries pollutants from cities into rivers and streams.
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effects of air pollution and the management of it?
this can lead to acid rain which damages buildings and vegetation. it can cause health problems e.g.headaches. some pollutants destroy the ozone layer. management- setting air quality standards for industries and monitoring levels of pollutants.
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effects of water pollution and the management of it?
it kills fish & aquatic animals, which disrupts the food chains. harmful chemicals can build up in the food chains & harm humans who eat from those animals & also contamination of water. managment- building sewage treatment plants & passing laws.
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schemes to reduce waste and safely dispose of it?
more recycling means fewer resources are used. less waste is produced, which reduces the amount that goes to landfill. landfill is unsustainable as it wastes resources that could be recycled and eventually there'll be nowhere left to bury the waste.
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conserving natural environment and historic buildings?
historic buildings, natural environments & open spaces are resources. if they get used up by people today they wont be available for people in the future to ue. historic buildings can restored & natural environments can be protected.
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building on brownfield sites?
brownfield sites are derelict areas that have been uses but arent being used anymore. using them for new buildings stops green space being used up. so the space will still be available for people to use in the future.
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building carbon-neutral homes?
they are buildings that generate as much energy as they use. more homes can be provided, without damaging the environment too much or causing much more pollution.
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creating an efficient public transport systems
good public transport systems mean fewer care on the road so pollution is reduced. bus, train and tram systems that use less fuel and give out less pollution can also be used.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what is rural urban migration?

Back

the movement of people from countryside to the cities.

Card 3

Front

what does rural urban migration cause?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

why do people in poorer countries move from rural areas to cities?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

why do people in richer countries more from rural areas to cities?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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