Geography Paper 4

  • Created by: Debbie
  • Created on: 19-05-13 06:39

Paper 4 Possible Topics


  • Changes in river velocity from source to mouth
  • Changes in load (shape and size) from source to mouth
  • Changes in channel depth, width, cross-section and wetted perimeter from source to mouth
  • Changes in discharge from source to mouth
  • Changes across a meanders cross section
  • Changes in river gradient from source to mouth
  • Changes in valley size and gradient from source to mouth
  • Changes in land use a long a river
  • Changes in pollution along a rivers' course (you need proper equipment for this)
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Paper 4 Possible Topics


  • Changes in vegetation (cover and variety) moving inland
  • Changes in beach profile and sand dune profile
  • Speed of longshore drift
  • Changes in land use
  • Changes in defences (compare to land use)
  • Changes in beach or dune material (size or shape)
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Paper 4 Possible Topics


  • Changes in land use
  • Changes in traffic (maybe CBD to rural-urban fringe)
  • Changes in pedestrians
  • Number and type of tourists
  • Changes in the quality of the environment or pollution levels (may look at the impact of industry)
  • Changes in globalisation
  • Changes in cost of products
  • Comparison to Burgess or Hoyt Model
  • Changes in wealth or population density (will have to use some secondary data)
  • Sphere of influences of settlements or services
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Paper 4 Possible Topics


  • Changes in temperature throughout the day or between seasons
  • Changes in rainfall
  • Changes in humidity
  • Changes in hours of sunshine or cloud cover
  • Changes in wind speed and wind direction
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Safety aspects


  • Protection from the weather (waterproof jacket, umbrella, hat, suncream)
  • Sensible dress (remember you will be representing your school, but you should also wear clothes that don't draw attention to yourself
  • Always carry out coursework in groups
  • Always tell an adult or teacher where you area carrying out coursework
  • Always carry a mobile phone with you
  • Never do coursework near a river or the sea without an adult or teacher and without them checking that it is safe
  • Carry out coursework in day light and wear reflective clothes
  • Check that your study area is safe. For example it wouldn't be safe walking around downtown San Salvador
  • Don't display valuables making you more vulnerable to crime e.g. if you have a camera or a phone keep it out of sight
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Primary Research

Primary Research:


  • It is up to date (current)
  • You know how the data has been collected i.e. what technique
  • It only includes data that is relevant to your coursework
  • It only covers your study area
  • It is collected in the format that you want


  • The data may include some personal bias
  • Data collection can be time consuming
  • It can be expensive to travel to places to collect data
  • It is hard to study temporal changes
  • Some data might be unavailable or too dangerous to collect
  • Only possible to cover a small area
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Secondary Research

Secondary Research:


  • You can study temporal changes e.g. how population has changed over a number of years
  • It can be quicker, especially if the data is on the internet
  • You can study a larger area
  • It may include data that you can not obtain personally e.g. salaries


  • It is out of date, especially if it has been printed in a book.
  • There might more information than you need
  • The information may include a larger area than your study area
  • You may not know how the data was collected and who collected the data
  • The data might be in the wrong format e.g. in a graph and not raw figures
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