Urban environments notes

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  • Created on: 15-05-14 19:08
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Urban Environments
Reasons for differing rates of urbanisation
1. LICs are experiencing industrial boom as HICs have- TNCs attracted by cheap labour and
favourable tax regulations to cities such as Beijing. Jobs pull people from rural areas and so cities
2. Urbanisation slowing in HICs- large portion of population already urban. Transport and accessibility
much better (so living near work isnt necessary); cities perceived as polluted and having high
crime rates; larger houses with gardens more affordable in rural areas- counter-urbanisation.
3. High natural increase in LICs- total number of people in LIC cities rising faster than in HICs (which
have lower birth rates). LIC families tend to have more children (lack of contraceptives, children
needed to work on farms or informal sector with parents, high level of infant mortality,
contraception against religion, HIC families want less children).
Push Factors Pull Factors
Land is more/less expensive
Lower/higher wages, less/more job opportunities
Lower/higher standard of living (health care, life opportunities)
Persecution Religious/cultural freedom
Inhospitable climates/ natural disasters (More) stable government
Problems of rapid urbanisation
Environmental Social Economic
Overcrowded conditions Poverty
Disused factories High unemployment
Pollution, smog High crime rate
Decaying housing, Family breakdown Disused factories
widespread dereliction
Poorly built flats
Lack of adequate open space Tenements boarded up
Traffic Houses needing repair
High numbers of single Declining industries
Low incomes
Little space for children to Lack of skilled workers
Poor access to motorways
Mexico City- generates most of Mexicos income
Bangkok- most urban area in Thailand; could lead to to high atmospheric pollution
Caracas- more jobs than anywhere else in Venezuela

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Urban Environments
HIC Land Use Theory
-Most desirable land in centre (most
-Land most valuable in CBD, so grows
upwards, not outwards
-Industry located along main roads
-1. CBD: shops, businesses
-2. Transition zone: industry, factories
-3. Low class residential (old inner city),
uniform blocks of houses
-4. Middle class residential (interwar),
some cul de sacs, more room between
-5.…read more

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Urban Environments
Core- oldest part, usually contains CBD
Inner-city ring- early suburban area, usually low class, some
evidence of old industry (eg.…read more

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Urban Environments
Characteristics: limited access to clean water, little/no sewage/electricity, weak building materials
(e.g. Cardboard)
Self-help housing: housing improved by owner with tools and training supplied to them. Made of
better quality materials than the usual cardboard/tarpaulin (e.g. Bricks)
Urban Segregation
The concentration of different ethnic, religious or socio-economic groups in different parts of a city.
When immigrants/ethnicities of socio-economic groups become increasingly concentrated/isolated in
certain areas, these areas are sometimes referred to as ghettos.…read more

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Urban Environments
Sarratt- suburbanised village
- Many houses along roads leading out of village
- Poorer younger locals displaced by richer incomers as house prices rise
- More demand more services (e.g.…read more

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Urban Environments
Views of locals
Farmers - Angry if land built on
- Happy if not to buy/sell supplies/produce to centre
Locals from nearby - Thrilled for shopping
villages - Annoyed: air/noise pollution, traffic
Owners of Willows Farm Worried noise -> scare animals
Conservationists Resent loss of wildlife
Owners of football ground Annoyed if traffic disrupts training
Conflict from building of M25
-Farmers angry that land compulsorily taken/cut in two sections to build M25, people trespass onto
land, leave gates open
-Friction between original residents…read more

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Urban Environments
- Partnerships- local government and private sector working together to fund redevelopment projects
Groups involved in redevelopment
Group Roles/responsibilities
Newhman, Southwark, Tower Hamlets local Approve/reject schemes, provide some funding,
councils set tax prices
National government Created LDDC and Isle of Dogs EZ,financial
help, improved transport infrastructure
Property developers Find and buy suitable land, look for
developments and investors
Housing associations Help fund and rent out low-cost housing
Environmentalists Campaign against non-eco-friendly schemes
LDDC Oversees development, power of compulsory
purchase, liaises with different interest…read more


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