BMS1032 cardio example Q's

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1. human blood:

  • is composed of about 40-45% cells, with the remainder plasma
  • normally has a K conc between 20-25mmol/L
  • volume is about 10L
  • normally has a pH range of 7.0-7.1
  • contains nucleated RBCs
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2. the ECG:

  • is increased as the strength of the heart beat increases
  • contains a r wave caused by ventricular repolarisation
  • occurs at the same rate as the arterial pulse in a healthy individual
  • contains a p wave of great magnitude than the qrs complex
  • is measured with a stethoscope

3. deoxygenated blood:

  • carried less co2 than oxygenated blood
  • is carried in the pulmonary veins
  • remains about 75% saturated with o2
  • contains less haemoglobin than oxygenated blood
  • is filtered through the lymphatic system

4. arterial blood pressure:

  • is sensed in the carotid sinus
  • may be measured with an electrocardiogram
  • the minimum value recorded in the arteries is termed systolic pressure
  • when reduced is termed hypertension
  • is similar in value in the aorta to pulmonary artery

5. erythropoiesis:

  • due to a breakdown of megakaryocytes
  • is increased by low arterial PO2 (hypoxia)
  • is regulated by erythropoietin released from the spleen
  • is regulated by erythropoietin released from the liver
  • is an alternative term for anaemia


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