BMS1032 cardio example Q's

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1. erythropoiesis:

  • is regulated by erythropoietin released from the spleen
  • is an alternative term for anaemia
  • is regulated by erythropoietin released from the liver
  • is increased by low arterial PO2 (hypoxia)
  • due to a breakdown of megakaryocytes
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2. the ECG:

  • contains a p wave of great magnitude than the qrs complex
  • contains a r wave caused by ventricular repolarisation
  • is increased as the strength of the heart beat increases
  • occurs at the same rate as the arterial pulse in a healthy individual
  • is measured with a stethoscope

3. arteries:

  • are sites of gaseous exchange with tissues
  • contain valves to prevent backflow
  • carry oxygenated blood in both systematic and pulmonary circulation
  • dampen the pulsatile flow of blood emerging from the heart
  • are very distensible compared to veins

4. arterial blood pressure:

  • is similar in value in the aorta to pulmonary artery
  • is sensed in the carotid sinus
  • may be measured with an electrocardiogram
  • the minimum value recorded in the arteries is termed systolic pressure
  • when reduced is termed hypertension

5. the sympathetic nervous system when activated:

  • decreases the strength of cardiac contraction
  • releases Ach from postganglionic nerve fibres
  • increases systemic vascular resistance (causes vasocontriction)
  • decreases heart rate
  • decrease blood flow

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