BMS1032 cardio example Q's

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1. an increase in venous return to the heart:

  • increases ventricular stroke work
  • occurs when standing up
  • is termed hypotension
  • increases filling of the ventricle during systole
  • occurs after reduction of blood volume
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2. plasma proteins:

  • are important carriers of o2 and co2
  • readily cross the capillary wall
  • are responsible for the red colour of blood
  • include immunoglobulins and albumin
  • are synthesised in the spleen

3. the cardiac output:

  • is measured by flow receptors in the aorta
  • is reduced during exercise
  • is the same from the right ventricle compared to the left
  • is the product of arterial blood pressure multiplied and stroke volume
  • is decreased if venous return is raised

4. concerning blood groups:

  • plasma of group O contains no anti A or anti B antibodies
  • a person of group A contains anti A antibodies
  • a person of blood group O is a universal donor
  • rhesus factor antigen is only found on group O blood
  • A and B surface antigens are found on monocytes

5. clotting factors:

  • catalyse the conversion of fibrin to thrombin
  • are important in platelet aggregation
  • depend on vitamin D for their production
  • require Ca2+ as a cofactor in many instances
  • some are produced in the liver by a vitamin B12 dependent process

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