BMS1032 cardio example Q's

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1. human blood:

  • normally has a K conc between 20-25mmol/L
  • normally has a pH range of 7.0-7.1
  • volume is about 10L
  • is composed of about 40-45% cells, with the remainder plasma
  • contains nucleated RBCs
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2. concerning blood groups:

  • plasma of group O contains no anti A or anti B antibodies
  • a person of group A contains anti A antibodies
  • a person of blood group O is a universal donor
  • rhesus factor antigen is only found on group O blood
  • A and B surface antigens are found on monocytes

3. an increase in venous return to the heart:

  • increases filling of the ventricle during systole
  • is termed hypotension
  • occurs when standing up
  • increases ventricular stroke work
  • occurs after reduction of blood volume

4. the ECG:

  • contains a p wave of great magnitude than the qrs complex
  • contains a r wave caused by ventricular repolarisation
  • occurs at the same rate as the arterial pulse in a healthy individual
  • is measured with a stethoscope
  • is increased as the strength of the heart beat increases

5. the cardiac output:

  • is the product of arterial blood pressure multiplied and stroke volume
  • is reduced during exercise
  • is measured by flow receptors in the aorta
  • is the same from the right ventricle compared to the left
  • is decreased if venous return is raised

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