Warrens Cell bio lectures

  • Created by: Sarah
  • Created on: 12-05-17 10:13
how long do RBCs last?
100-120 days
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what is formation of RBCs called?
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how much of the RBC is globin peptide?
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how many leukocytses/WBCs are there per mm^3?
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what percent of body weight is lood?
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where are RBCs prenatally made?
liver, yolk sac and spleen
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steps in formation of RBCs?
haemotocytoblasts -> reticulocytes --> RBCs
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what are reticulocytes? what do they contain lots of?
immature RBCs, contain lots of RER
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how much blood is produced a week?
1 pint
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what happens to reticulocytes?
have lots of RER -> leave bone marrow and syn Hb -> 2-3 days later RER disappears
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erythrocytes production is controlled by what? released from where?
erythropoietin from kidneys
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what is unique about RBCs?
anucleate, no organelles, biconcave shape
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how many erythrocytes per mm^3 of peripheral blood?
5 million
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how much of blood is blood cells and platelets?
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what gender contains more Hb?jow much?
male, 13.5-18g/DL Hb
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where are erythrocytes postnatally made?
marrow cavity of long bones (ribs, sternum, vertebrate)
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how many WBCs are there to RBCS?
1 WBC : 700 RBCs
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what is the name for having increased WBCS?
leukocytosis- infection
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what are the 2 main types of wbc?
granulocytes and agranulocytes
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what granulocytes are there?
neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils
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what 2 types of blood vessels are there?
1) systolic (high ressure) 2) diastolic (high pressure
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pulsatile flow like in the aorta is smoothed out by what?
elastic arteries
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what artery maintains blood pressure?
muscular arteries
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what are agranulocyte wbcs?
lympocytes and monocytes
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3 structures of an artery?
intima- endothelial layer, simple squamous, media- muscle layer large in arteries, adventitia- outer layer CT elastic layer vasa vasorum
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what is one of the largst elastic arteries in the body?
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what kind of pressure is for elastic arteries?
high systolic pressure 120-160mmHG
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how many layers of elastic fibre is there in the aorta?
50 or more layers
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what is there mainly in the media of muscular arteries?
mainly smooth muscle
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what feature of muscular arteries allow them to control bp?
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what is the diameter of capillaries?
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what kind of exchange is capillaries for?
gaseous exchange
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structure of capillaries?
endothelium on basement membrane with occasional pericytes
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2 types of capillaries?
continous or fenestrated (discontinous)
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what type is a fenestrated capillary
type II
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what capillary is type I?
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where are sinusoids found?
liver, bone, bone marrow
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what are sinusoids?
specialised vasvcular channles lined by endothelium, little basement membrane, larger than capillaries
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what is the difference between a thrombus and an embolism?
thrombus is local, embolism has wandered
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what is an aneurysm?
bulging out of blood vessel, bulges and bursts with torrential blood lost
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what can cause an anyeursum?
embolism or atheroma extends intot media smooth muscle is replaced by non contractile tissue
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what can cause atheromatous plaques?
high pressure in elsatic and some proximal muscular arteries
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what is an atheroma?
fatty inflitration of the intima, collagen deposition
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what can an atheroma result in?
thrombus and aneurysm formation
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what does an atheromatous plaque impair?
blood flow
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what is a thrombus?
damaged endothelium exposes collagen, stimulates thrombus formation, basically haemostasis goes too far clot grows too much into a thrombus
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what are he 3 types of troponins?
1) Tn I, Tn T, Tn C
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why are there different types of troponins?
to bind different things mostly
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what does each troponin do?
Tn T- binds troponin, Tn C- binds calcium, Tn I-inhibitory
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what is tropoysin made from?
a double alpha helix
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what is the MW of tropomyosin?
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every how long along the tropomyosin lies a troponin complex?
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what is the 3 types of muscle?
1) skeletal 2) cardiac 3) smooth
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how can you classify muscle?
1) classic-skeletal etc 2) functionally- fast or slow 3) biochemically- red or white
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what are the 3 biological activities of myosin?
1) spontaneously assembles into filaments 2) enzyme ATPase 3) binds polymerised actin
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features of smooth muscle?
uninucleate, unbranched, unstriated and involuntary contraction
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what band is myosin?
A band
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how many myosins are there per filament?
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Filaments (F) actin is made up of what monomers?
Globular Protein- G-actin
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F-actin makes a chain of what?
2 alpha helices
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what controls contraction?
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are cystolic levels of calcium usually high or low?
usually low
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when calcium levels are low what consequence does this have on muscle?
very few Tn C (troponin calcium binding sites) are occupied by calcium, cross bridge formation is blocked by tropomyosin
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where is calcium released from in the muscle cell?
sacroplasmic reticulum, binds to Tn c
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structure of actin?
G (globular) actin -> F (filament) actin -> F actin makes a chain of 2 alpha helices -> wrapped around is tropomyosin
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what band is actin?
I band, thin filamts
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how many actin molecules per filament?
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how many filaments of actin are there?
6 x 10^10
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is actin or myosin longer? lengths?
myosins longer 1.6um, actin shorter 1.0um
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what are features of cardiac muscle?
intercalated discs, purkinje fibres (glycogen) faintly striated, inherent rhythm, branched fibres
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what are skeletal muscles used for?
voluntary contraction
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are skeletal muscles branched?
no unbranched and long
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what does skeletal muscle have to carry nerve impusles?
T tubules
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is skeletal muscle uninucleate or multinucleate?
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are there more myosin molecules per filament or actin?
actin-380 myosin- 300
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what does CT form from?
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functions of C?
storgae repair and transport
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what does CT made up of?
fibres, cell, matrix
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how many genes in collagen?
34 genes
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what is collagen rich in?
GP, glycine and proline
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what vitamin is needed for collagen?
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collagen is made up of what?
3 chains of alpha helices
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synthesis of collagen pathway?
pro-collagen -> tropocollagen -> collagen
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are tendons or dermis irregular?
dermis- think the skins is irregular
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type 1 collgane is for?
large branched fibres (bone, tendon skin)
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type 4 collagen for?
sheets- B
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Type 7 collagen for?
short fibrils- anchoring fibrils in BM
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small fibres of collagen can be called what?
reticular fibres
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what are elastic fibres made by?
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is elastin (pro in elastic) hydrophobic or hydrophillic?
hydrophobic elastic in water not as good!
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what is elastic often bound with?
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what stain is used to see elastic?
weigberts stain
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where do elastic fibres occur?
pinna, skin, epiglottis
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what are the special features of elastic?
highly cross linked for strech and recoil
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is fibroblasts or fibrocytes inactive?
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CT cell examples?
fibroblasts, fibrocytes, mast cells, chondrocytes, osteocytes and plasma cells
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features of fibroblasts?
lots of cytoplasm, RER, round euchromatic nucleus
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what kind of nucleus do fibrocytes have?
flat heterochromatic
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what do fibrocytes make? also called?
tendons, sometimes called tendinocytes
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what do fibrocytes have little of?
RER cytoplasm
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is white fat uniocular or multiocular?
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which fat is more common?
white fat
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before maturing into fat cells what are they first?
spindle shaped
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what are fat cells abundant in?
pinocytic vesicles and SER
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fat cells are a sleeve of what type of collagen?
type 3
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what do fat cells have recs for?
GH, thyroid hormone, insulin, gluco-corticoids
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what do fat cells have a good supply of ?
blood and autonomic nerve supply
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what is the matrix produced by?
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what are GAGs?
GAGS- large unbranched polysaccharide chains made of repeated disaccharide units
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what charge does GAGs have?
highly negative
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are GAGs hydrophobic or hydrophiliic?
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what do GAGs make the matrix retain?
sodium and +ve ions
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retaining sodium and ions is good to keep the ECM what?
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what are proteoglycans for?
make a selective diffusion gel, ECM gel, huge molecules with large hydration spaces
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what are proteoglycans?
GAGS + protein
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what does GAG stand for?
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4 types of GAGs?
keratan sulphate, heparan sulphate, chondrotin sulphate, hyaluronic acid
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where is hyaluronic acid used?
synovial fluid and catilage
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which GAG is found in the lung, BM and liver?
heparan sulphate
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where is stretchy pseudostratified epithelium found?
bladder and trachea
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what is the BM made of?
extracellular proteins like fibronectin and collagen 4 (sheets)
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what stain is used to see the BM?
positive for periodic acid schiffs
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where has simple columnar epithelium?
bronchus (with cilia), small intestine and gall bladed
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what type of epithelia is in the bronchus?
columnar epithelia with cilia
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what epithelium has a round rather than oval nucleus?
simple cubodial epithelium
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where is simple cubodial epithelium from?
ducts of glands and kidney tubules
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what germ layer does epithelium come from?
all 3
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what does epithelium not have?
nerves- innervervated, blood supply-avascular
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what is formation of RBCs called?



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how much of the RBC is globin peptide?


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Card 4


how many leukocytses/WBCs are there per mm^3?


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Card 5


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