B3b: Proteins and Mutations

The genetic material in the form of DNA codes for the production of proteins. This item looks at the structure and functions of proteins in living organisms, including the role of enzymes. It also introduces mutations and how they can alter the proteins that a cell produces. The study of enzyme action provides the opportunity to gain the skills of working accurately and safely, individually and with others, to collect first-hand data and to test a scientific explanation using scientific theories, models and ideas. 

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Name three proteins.
Collagen, Haemoglobin and Insulin
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What are enzymes?(4)
Proteins, biological catalysts, they catalyse chemical reactions occurring in living cells, and they have a high specificity for their substrate.
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What do enzymes have?
Active sites
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What happens to an enzymes' active site when a reaction takes place?
A substrate molecule complementary base pairs with it.
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What do different cells and different organisms produce?
Different proteins.
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What is a gene mutation a change to?
Genes.
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What are proteins made of?
Long chains of amino acids
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What are the four functions of proteins?
Structural, hormones, carrier molecules and enzymes.
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Name a structural protein.
Collagen
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Name a hormone.
Insulin
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Name a carrier molecule.
Haemoglobin
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What does each protein have? What does this result in? What do they have?
Its own number and sequence of amino acids, which results in differently shaped molecules, which have different functions.
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Talk about the 'lock and key' mechanism
The active site has to be the right shape for the substrate molecules to fit into. This means that enzymes have a high specificity for their substrate – a particular type of enzyme will only work with one or a smaller number of substrates.
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Name three chemical reactions that enzymes catalyse.
Respiration, photosynthesis and protein synthesis.
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What will happen if you change the temperature and ph away from the optimum.
The rate of reaction of an enzyme-catalysed reaction will change.
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How is enzyme activity affected by low temperatures?
Lower collision rates
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How is enzyme activity affected by extreme highs of pH and temperature.
Denatured enzymes.
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What is the definition of denaturing?
An irreversible change which changes the shape of the active site.
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How do you work out Q10?
Rate at higher temperature/Rate at lower temperature
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What is Q10?
Q10 or temperature coefficient is a measure of the rate of change of a reaction when the temperature is increased by 10 °C.
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What might gene mutations lead to?
The production of a different protein.
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Can mutations occur spontaneously?
Yes
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What can make mutations more likely to happen?
Ionising radiation (Gamma/X-ray) and Chemicals (Tar)
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What are mutations often? Harmful, beneficial or no effect? Can they be any of the three?
Often harmful, but can be beneficial or have no effect.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are enzymes?(4)

Back

Proteins, biological catalysts, they catalyse chemical reactions occurring in living cells, and they have a high specificity for their substrate.

Card 3

Front

What do enzymes have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens to an enzymes' active site when a reaction takes place?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do different cells and different organisms produce?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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