Mutations

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  • Created by: Abc312
  • Created on: 23-04-18 20:41
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  • Mutations
    • A mutation is a random change in an organism's DNA.
    • They happen continuously
      • They can be completely spontaneous
        • For example if a chromosome doesn't replicate properly.
      • The chances of mutations can be increased by certain substances.
    • They change the sequence of the DNA bases in a gene
      • This means that the protein that is made could be changed.
    • Most mutations have very little or no effect on the protein
      • However some mutations can be serious and change the proteins shape which could change its function.
        • Structural proteins could lose their strength
        • The active site of the enzyme could change
    • Types of Mutations
      • Insertions
        • This is where a new base is inserted where it should not be
        • This not only changes the amino acid where it is inserted but also the following ones.
      • Deletions
        • A random base is deleted from the sequence
        • They change the way the bases are 'read'.
      • Substitutions
        • A base is changed to a different one
        • This only alters the amino acid in which the base is changed.

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