B3 - Proteins & Mutations

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Proteins
• Made of long chains of amino acids joined together
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Protein Functions
• Collagen = build cells and tissues • Hormones = carry messages to control a reaction • Haemoglobin = carries oxygen in the blood • Enzymes
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Protein Functions (2)
• Each protein > own number and order of amino acids > each type of protein molecule a different shape + function
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Enzymes
• Speeds up chemical reactions in the body • Biological catalysts • Catalyse chemical reactions in respiration, photosynthesis + protein synthesis
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Lock & Key Theory
• Substrate molecule fits into the active site of the enzyme • Explains why each enzyme can only work on a particular substrate
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pH & Temperature
• Enzymes all work best at a particular temp. + pH • Any change will slow the reaction • Low Temp. = molecules are moving more slowly > enzyme + substrate = less likely to collide • High/Low Temp. > enzyme's active site changes shape = denaturing
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Q10
Rate at Higher Temperature / Rate at Lower Temperature
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Mutations
• May occur spontaneously • Occurs more often by radiation or chemicals
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Mutations (2)
• My lead to the production of different proteins • Are often harmful but may have no effect • Occasionally might give an advantage
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Bases
• A mutation changes the order of the four bases
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

• Collagen = build cells and tissues • Hormones = carry messages to control a reaction • Haemoglobin = carries oxygen in the blood • Enzymes

Back

Protein Functions

Card 3

Front

• Each protein > own number and order of amino acids > each type of protein molecule a different shape + function

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

• Speeds up chemical reactions in the body • Biological catalysts • Catalyse chemical reactions in respiration, photosynthesis + protein synthesis

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

• Substrate molecule fits into the active site of the enzyme • Explains why each enzyme can only work on a particular substrate

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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