B1 Variation, reproduction and new technology

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  • Created by: KAustria
  • Created on: 05-06-14 07:49
How many chromosomes do gametes carry?
26 chromosomes. A single set
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How does an offspring inherit a full set of chromosomes?
During reproduction the offspring inherits a set of genes from each parent which in total will come to a full set of choromosomes.
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What do genes do?
Genes control the development of different characteristics of the osffpring
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What is asexual reproduction?
1. Does not involve the fusion of gametes 2. All genetic information comes form one parent 2. All genes are identical to the parent so there is little variety
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What is sexual reproduction?
1. Involves the fusion of gametes 2. There is a mixture of genetic information 3. This means that there is variation.
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What can't an offspring from the result of sexual reproduction not be identical to their parents?
They are similar to both parents but they have a combination of two sets of genes.
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What are the causes for the difference in characteristics of an individuals of he same sam species?
1. The differences in genes they have inherited 2. The conditions they have developed in 3. The combination of genetic and environmental causes.
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What factor plays a big part in controlling the appearance of an individual?
genes
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What factors can affect the growth of a plant?
Deprivation of nutrients and vitamins
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What factors can affect the development of a human?
1. If the mother smokes or drinks alcohol. 2. Food
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What are clones?
Individuals which are genetically identical to their parents
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Why is cloning done?
To produce new individuals that would be useful in farming and agriculture.
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How can plants be cloned?
1.Taking cuttings and growing them 2. Tissue culture - taking small grops of cells from a plant and growing them
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What can tissue culture be used for?
This is an expensive method which can be used to produce large numbers of rare or top quality plants.
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How can animals be cloned?
1. Embryo transplants 2. Genetically modified
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Explain how embryo transplants work
1. An embryo with unspecialised cells is split into smaller groups of cells 2.The group of genetically identical cells are transplanted in the host mother 3. They are allowed to develop
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Why is it more difficult to successfully clone animals than plants?
1. There have to be enough hosts 2. Some embryos may die during development 3. IT takes longer for animals to develop
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Describe the process of adult cell cloning
1. The nucleus is removed from the unfertilised egg cell 2. The nucleus is removed from the adult cell 3. The nucleus of adult cell is placed in the empty egg 4. The new cell is given an electric shock 4 The cells divide 5. The embryo is inserted
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What are the benefits of cell cloning?
1. They have been genetically engineered to produce valuable sources 2. can be used in medicine 3. Save animals from extinction
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What are the disadvanatges to cloning?
1.The ethics of cloning 2. Limits the variation in population which can be a problem for natural selection 3. cloning humans
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Define genetic engineering
The changing of genetic make-up of an organism.
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Describe the process of genetic engineering
1. A gene is 'cut out' of the chromosome of an organism using an enzyme 2. The gene is placed in the chromosome of another organism 3. This is normally done in the early development
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What is are the uses of genetic engineering?
1. desired characteristics 2. transfer in different species 3. crops
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What are crops with changed genes called?
Genetically modified crop plants.
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In what form can GM crops be?
insect or herbicide resistant 2. Usually have increased yields.
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What are the advantages of genetic engineering and cloning?
1. Useful characteristics 2. Copies of the best animals 3. A person can be cured from a genetic disorder 4. medical drugs 5. GM crops increase the longevity of them.
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What are the disadvantages of genetic engineering and cloning?
1. Crops are infertile so new seeds have to bough 2. new genes into populations 3. insects which are not pests can be harmed 4. human health by consuming GM 5. Unethical
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How does an offspring inherit a full set of chromosomes?

Back

During reproduction the offspring inherits a set of genes from each parent which in total will come to a full set of choromosomes.

Card 3

Front

What do genes do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is asexual reproduction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is sexual reproduction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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