B1- you and your genes

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  • B1- you and your genes
    • Genes, DNA and Chromosomes
      • Chromosomes are short sections of DNA.
        • Decides whether male/female
          • MALE- X and Y chromosome
            • Y=testosterone=male reproduction
          • FEMALE- ** chromosome
      • Genes are instructions for making proteins, and these control what a cell does and an organism's characteristics
        • Proteins=important
          • Structural- support development of body etc.
            • skin hair blood cytoplasm. (collagen- tendons and bones)
          • Functional- Aid bodily functions
            • enzymes help digestion and breaking foods down (amylase- starch to sugars)
        • ALLELES- different versions of the same gene
          • Gametes (sperm and egg)
            • 23 single chromosome pairs
              • Don't look the same as parents- not the same alleles- combinations...
          • HOMOZYGOUS - two alleles the same for a gene
          • HETEROZYGOUS- two different alleles for the same gene
          • DISORDERS- some inherited... one or both parents carry faulty allele
            • Recessive- cystic fibrosis
              • sticky mucus, breathing difficulty, infections, digesting food
              • (f) both parents have to be carriers/sufferers
            • Dominant- huntingtons
              • tremors, clumsiness,bad memory/concentration.
              • h if one parent has the allele- child has 50%chance
      • Phenotype- the characteristics an organism shows
        • Genotype- the genes an organism has
    • Variation
      • Gametes (sperm and egg)
        • 23 single chromosome pairs
          • Don't look the same as parents- not the same alleles- combinations...
    • Genetic testing
      • in vitro fertilistation (IVF)
        • PGD (pre-implantation genetic diagnosis)... healthy embryos selected
      • ISSUES
        • Not 100%accurate (neg-pos)
          • contamination/misinterpretation
        • Not totally safe
          • miscarriages
        • is it right to terminate? (religion and abortion??)
          • technology=better lifestyle.. not fair for abortion?
    • Clones (genetically identical organisms
      • Asexual reproduction (1parent)
        • Bacteria(multiply so quickly)
        • PLANTS- horizontal runners (new clones at tips- strawberry plants)
          • bulbs (garlic)
      • TWINS- embryo into 2... separate forms!
      • LAB CLONES
        • Nucleus removed to leave empty cell, adult donor nucleus inserted in place, cell stimulated to divide like embryo.
    • STEM CELLS (unspecialised) Develop depending on instruction
      • Embryonic
        • embryos- can develop into anything
        • sick people- heart muscle cells, insulin producing (diabetes)
      • Adult
        • maintaining/repairing old/damaged cells (can be extracted from bone marrow)
          • blood diseases- sickle cell anaemia... (marrow transplants)


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