Variation, reproduction and new technology

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  • Variation, reproduction and new technology
    • Inheritance
      • Why do we resemble our parents?
        • E.g.s of inherited characteristics
          • Nose shape
          • Eye colour
          • Dimples
        • Result of info from genes
          • Passed on to you from the gametes from which you developed
      • Chromosones and genes
        • Inside the nucleus of all your cells are chromosones
          • Thread like structures
          • Chromosones made of chemical called DNA
            • This is where the genetic info is stored
        • Every organism has a different amount of chromosones
          • Humans have 46 total
            • 1/2 inherited from Mum  1/2 from dad
            • 23 pairs in all normal body cells
        • Chromosones contain genes. Genes are the unit of inheritance
          • In an organism genes control
            • Size
            • Shape
            • Colour
          • DNA is a long two stranded molecule, twisted together to make a spiral
            • Known as a double helix
    • Types of reproduction
      • Sexual
        • Joining of 2 gametes
        • Inherit genetic info from both parents
          • Introduces variety
        • Plants do it
        • most animals do it
        • Gametes made
      • Asexual
        • 1 parent
        • Offspring are clones (no genetic variation)
        • Common in bacteria
        • No cell fusion
        • Used to replace worn out tissues in your body
    • Genetic Variation and Control
      • Differences in species may be down to genetic/environmental differnces or both
        • Environment
          • Wind swept tree
          • Flowers (of same species) colour
          • Height
            • Genetics
              • Eye colour
              • Ear lobes-Attached/detatched?
        • Genetics
          • Eye colour
          • Ear lobes-Attached/detatched?
    • Cloning
      • Fusion Cell
        • Cell removed from mammary gland of the DNA donor sheep
          • Egg removed from egg donor sheep and de-nucleated
            • De-nucleated egg and donated DNA fused together with electric shock
              • Fused cell given another electric shock, begins to divide and form an embryo
                • Embryo implanted into uterus of surrogate sheep
                  • Surrogate gives birth to lamb (a clone of the DNA donor sheep)
  • Cell removed from mammary gland of the DNA donor sheep
    • Egg removed from egg donor sheep and de-nucleated
      • De-nucleated egg and donated DNA fused together with electric shock
        • Fused cell given another electric shock, begins to divide and form an embryo
          • Embryo implanted into uterus of surrogate sheep
            • Surrogate gives birth to lamb (a clone of the DNA donor sheep)
  • Tissue culture
    • Right mixture of plant hormones
      • Can make a small group of cells from chosen plant produce a big mass of identical plant cells
        • then with a different hormone mix and conditions you can stimulate these cells to form a new plant
          • Guarantees desired characteristics
            • Modern alternative to cuttings (which also produce identical daughter plants)
    • Cloning
      • Fusion Cell
    • Genetic engineering
      • Used to change an organism and give it new characteristics
        • Enzymes used to cut the donor and recipient DNA molecules
          • Section of DNA inserted into recipient  DNA
            • Recepient organism now able to produce  required protein
      • Variation, reproduction and new technology
        • Inheritance
          • Why do we resemble our parents?
            • E.g.s of inherited characteristics
              • Nose shape
              • Eye colour
              • Dimples
            • Result of info from genes
              • Passed on to you from the gametes from which you developed
          • Chromosones and genes
            • Inside the nucleus of all your cells are chromosones
              • Thread like structures
              • Chromosones made of chemical called DNA
                • This is where the genetic info is stored
            • Every organism has a different amount of chromosones
              • Humans have 46 total
                • 1/2 inherited from Mum  1/2 from dad
                • 23 pairs in all normal body cells
            • Chromosones contain genes. Genes are the unit of inheritance
              • In an organism genes control
                • Size
                • Shape
                • Colour
              • DNA is a long two stranded molecule, twisted together to make a spiral
                • Known as a double helix
        • Types of reproduction
          • Sexual
            • Joining of 2 gametes
            • Inherit genetic info from both parents
              • Introduces variety
            • Plants do it
            • most animals do it
            • Gametes made
          • Asexual
            • 1 parent
            • Offspring are clones (no genetic variation)
            • Common in bacteria
            • No cell fusion
            • Used to replace worn out tissues in your body
        • Genetic Variation and Control
          • Differences in species may be down to genetic/environmental differnces or both
            • Environment
              • Wind swept tree
              • Flowers (of same species) colour
              • Height

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