AS Textiles

Fibre
A fine hair-like structure that is the basis of a yarn or fabric.
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Staple fibre
A short fibre that needs to be twisted with others to make a yarn and tend to have a slightly hairy appearance.
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Filament fibre
A long fibre that can be used alone or twisted with others to make a smooth yarn and give a smooth finish to fabrics.
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Yarn
A thread like structure that is made from either short staple fibres twisted together or long filament fibres.
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Fabric
A sheet or length of cloth made from fibres or yarns.
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Synthetic fibre
Entirely artificial and made using oil and coal in its chemical production. 100% chemical.
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Polymerisation
The process by which monomers are joined together to form polymers.
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Trade name
A name given to a fibre created and sold by a company such as Nylon (named by DuPont) where polyamide is its generic name.
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Microfibre
A synthetic fibre that is made 60 times finer than a human hair.
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Regenerated fibre
Natural cellulose treated with artificial chemicals to extract the fibre.
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Closed-loop process
A manufacturing process where by all waste is reused in the production system.
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Biodegradable
Can be broken down naturally through the action of bacteria or other living organisms.
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Sustainable
Can be manufactured with little or no negative impact on the environment and on the health and wellbeing of the workers employed to make the product.
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Blended fibre
Two or more fibres spun together to make a yarn.
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Mixed fibre
Two or more yarns mixed together in the construction of the fabric.
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Aesthetics
The visual design appeal.
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Green fibre
An alternative sustainable source of fibre for a yarn or fabric.
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Woven fabric
Interlacing yarns with warp running down the length and weft running across the fabric.
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Jacquard
A complex weave or a loom for complex weaves.
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Plain weave
A simple basic weave with alternating yarns between weft and warp.
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Twill weave
Weft goes under more than one warp thread, making a diagonal stripe pattern on the fabric.
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Satin weave
The weft or the warp goes over four or more yarns, giving a high, smooth sheen to the fabric.
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Pile weave
Loops or cut loops form a raised texture on the fabric.
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Weight
A fabric is dictated by the thickness and fibre type of the yarn and/or the denseness of the weave or knit.
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Felted
Fibres are pressed together using heat, moisture and agitation, or hot needles.
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Bonded
Webs of fibres are pressed together using adhesives or heat.
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Laminated
Two or more fabrics bonded together to enhance the fabric's properties.
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PVC
Polyvinyl chloride
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Micro-encapsulation
Substances that are fixed to the fabric or the fibre and can then be activated, such as perfumes.
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Weft knit
Loops linked across the width of the fabric.
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Warp knit
Loops linked in a vertical direction.
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Embossing
A relief print pressed into a fabric changing its surface texture as well as giving a patterned appearance.
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Drape
How a fabric hangs.
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Colourfast
How well a fabric keeps dyes applied to it, even through regular washing.
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Smart fabric
A textile product that changes owing to its environment, without human intervention.
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Interactive fabric
A product that requires a power source to activate its features.
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Fabric specification
A list of requirements for a fabric, written down to help in the selection of the fabric.
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Fair trade
A partnership between producers and consumers that ensures the workers receive a fair wage, better access to markets in developed countries and community support.
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Eco-label
Found on an environmentally friendly product; awarded because of content or manufacturing system.
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Care label
Label contains information on how to care for and maintan a product.
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Quality label
Given o a product that has passed a standards test for the quality of the item or the system by which it has been produced.
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Safety label
Shows the product has passed safety testing standards.
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Recycled
A product that has been reused in some form.
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Organic
Produced using natural fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides to protect the biodiversity of the environment and workers' health.
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Pigment
A colour used to dye fibres and fabrics, which can come from a natural or synthetic source.
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Mordant
A chemical used to fix a dye to fibres and fabrics.
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Relief
Relief printing and dyeing means something is used to block the dyes from absorbing and is called a relief, e.g. string on tie dye or card on stencilling.
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Technique
A method used to add a feature to a fabric.
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Manipulated
Moving fabric by hand to shape or position folds or when a fabric is moved, folded, stretched or handled to change its look, fit and texture.
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Distressed
The way a fabric has been damaged/changed from its original state to give texture, colour or an aged look.
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Drawstring
A type of fastening; also a way to reduce fullness in a product.
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Concealed fastening
Fastening that canno be seen on the outsideof the product; it can be hidden in a seam or by a flap of the fabric.
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Pre-manufactured
Made ready to use in a factory.
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Interfacing
An extra layer of material between the main fabric and the lining fabric.
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Insulate
Add warmth to a fabric to keep heat regulated.
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Fusible
Can stick to a fabric, using heat to fuse.
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Target market/target group
The intended user/buyer.
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Colour palette/clourway
The colour or range of colours selected for the design of fabric or product.
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Client
The person or company that employs the designer to design a product.
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Task analysis
Working out what needs to be done in order to respond to the design brief.
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Mind map/brainstorm/thought shower
A chart/diagram listing thoughts/ideas as they occur; words may be linked by arrows to show the thought process.
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Disassembly
Examining closely, unpicking seams and taking apart to reduce the product to its cut-out pieces of fabric and components.
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Annotation
Written labels and notes.
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Tally chart
A system to record the number of times something occurs; usually grouped into fives for speed of counting.
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Wearable electronics
Electronic devices that are embedded into fabric or incorporated into clothing for sensing, monitoring, communication and entertainment purposes.
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Landfill
Where waste is dumped and then covered over.
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Customising/upcycling
Taking previously made pieces and transforming them into new designs by restyling or adding embellishments.
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Fast fashion
Fashionable clothing trend moving from catwalk to high street in record time; brief interest soon replaced by next fashion update.
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Slow clothes
Fashionable clothing that is bought, used and worn into the ground before discarding.
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Renewable energy
Electriciy generated from sources that will not be depleted, such as from wind and solar power.
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Legislation
Laws.
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Flammability
Liability to catch fire.
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Hazard
A step or process that could cause harm or injury.
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Hypoallergenic
Unlikely to cause an allergic reaction.
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UV protection
Will shield wearer from harmful ultra-violet radiation in sunlight.
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Sharps
Standard, long hand-sewing needles, or a term used in industry to refer to pins and needles in general.
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Spray diffuser
A hinged metal tube used to blow dye or ink on to fabric or paper.
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Squeegee
A tool with a rubber blade, used to spread print paste across a screen.
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Pattern master
A ruler with straight edges and curved edges to make drawing paper patterns easier.
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Pinking shears
Cut a zigzag edge, which helps to prevent woven fabrics from fraying.
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Manikin/mannequin
A dressmakers' dummy in human-shaped form, for designing and testing garments.
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Automatic
Operation carried out by machine, to assist an operator (semi-automatic) or to complete the tast independently (fully automatic).
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Overlocking
A method of neatening seams in industry using a machine with three or more threads to trim, stitch and edge-finish the seam.
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System
The method of putting together the individual parts.
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Workstations
Areas laid out to enable the worker to organise resources, use correct machinery and stack completed work in the most efficient way.
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Haute couture
The French term for the highest quality designer garments.
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Toile
A model of a garment often made from inexpensive cotton calico.
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Bias binding
A fabric ***** cut diagonally across fabric; the long edges are folded under and the ***** is folded in half along its length. This is the binding ***** that can be used to cover the raw edge of other fabrics.
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Placket
The ***** down the front opening of a shirt in which the buttonholes are stitched.
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Facing
Fabric is cut to the same pattern as the main fabric; the facing and main fabrics are placed right sides together, stitched around leaving a gap, then turned through. This results in a neat finished edge, e.g. used for sleeveless dress bodices.
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Interlining
Light bonded fabric that often has dry glue on one side; it can be ironed on to the reverse side of the main fabric to strengthen it. When the dry glue is heated it bonds the two layers together.
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Resources
Materials, people and machinery involved in making the product.
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Quality control (QC)
Products are checked to assess whether they conform to set standards.
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Working drawings/flats
Line drawings of garments, drawn to scale using simple, clear lines to show seams, darts, pockets, buttons, trims, etc.
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Spreadsheet
A table of data, which can be used to store information. Use Microsoft Excel to create spreadsheets and calculate data.
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Indirect costs/overheads
Business expenses not directly attributable to any particular product.
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Comparative shop
Research activity to compare and contrast two or more similar existing products, results may be presented as a report or in a table.
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Quality assurance
The guarantee that the product is a quality product.
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Prototype
The first trial product made to test materials, techniques and processes.
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Critical control points (CCPs)
The stages at which checks are made.
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Search engine
An internet tool to list web pages that feature the words or words entered in the search box.
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CAD
Computer-aided design.
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CAM
Computer-aided manufacture.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A short fibre that needs to be twisted with others to make a yarn and tend to have a slightly hairy appearance.

Back

Staple fibre

Card 3

Front

A long fibre that can be used alone or twisted with others to make a smooth yarn and give a smooth finish to fabrics.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A thread like structure that is made from either short staple fibres twisted together or long filament fibres.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A sheet or length of cloth made from fibres or yarns.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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