Ancient Rome -Religion

  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 25-04-17 18:30
For the founding of Rome, who was Rhea Silvia?
A Vestal virgin and the daughter of Numitor who was once KIng of Alba Longa
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Why did Amulius, the one who killed King Numitor, kidnap her?
To ensure she cannot produce more sons to threaten his rule
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However, what happens to Rhea Silvia according to sources?
She was ***** by War God Mars when she fell aslepp on the river bank when receiving water. She becomes pregnant
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According to Ovid, what is significant about this pregnancy?
"in her guts the ROman's city founder",Romulus and his twin brother Remus
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Why and How was Silvia killed in accordance to the traditional manner of Vestal virgins?
She had sex, -She was buried alive- Put in a cave with a little food and some oil for candles and shut it.
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Why didn't someone else kill her?
So they won't have sacrament for killing a religious person but she died naturally,
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Who was King after Romulus and so the second king of Rome and when did he reign?
King Numa Pompilius (716-674 BC)
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Who was he ordained by?
Jupiter himself
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WHat kind of ruler was he based on religion?
He was religious and pious and the orginator of Rome's religious rites
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Who did he set up temples to?
Janus and Faunus
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What number King was Tarquin th First and what did he build?
-Fifth King, -Built Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill
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In Early Republic, what is the Early Republic paralleled by basd on diversity?
Is paralleled by the diversity of its priesthood
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What were the two major colleges of priesthood?
-Pontifices, -Augures
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Who was the head of the Pontifices and who was under their control?
-Pontifex maximus, -Vestal virgins under his general control
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What were the Pontifices concerned with?
In general terms, sacrifices to the Gods
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What were the Augures concerened with?
Ascertaining the will of the Gods, for instance by observing the flight of birds,
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Priesthoods of the Republic were often held by men who also held what?
Secular office, but the difference being that a priesthood was for life and consulship for a year
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What at this time was there a creation of and an example?
Cults, -Cenring on the Aventine hill outside the boundary of the city of Rome and involving the cult of Ceres, Liber and Liberia,
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What was there a steady importation of from places such as Italy?
New dieties,
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Mid Republic- Who did the Romans believe in from the Greeks and when was this taken in?
12 Olympians, -3rd century BC
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Were there other ROman Gos other than this and an example?
Yes they were added to the Roman Gods, -Worshipped Venus before the Greeks but myths attached were Greek rather than Latin
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Who is classed as the father of Zeus?
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Give two examples of older Roman dieties and what type of Gods are they?
Fornus (God of Annales) and Preapus, -All Gods of nature without Greek influence,
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Give 3 examples of ways Romans tell the future?
1) oracles like the Greeks, 2) movement of birds in the sky 3) Investigate entrails of animals
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What is the Paz Deorum and where was it found and when?
-Bronze model of a liver, FOund in Italy in 1877
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How does the Paz Deorum and religion link?
It is divided into 16 sections, for the 16 regions of heaven rule by one of the Gods,
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What were their celebrations of throughout the year?
Celebrations of various public and private festivals
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What formed a major part of religious activity? and what did it involve?
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Were animals often sacrificed?
Yes but it didn't have to- Humans may have been sacrificed earlier, and then bread was sacrifed so animals were half way,
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How is religion part of everyday political life?
Treaties have to go through the Gods, Senates have to ask the Gods, animals etc if its a good time
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At what time in particular was this especially done?
During warfare,
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What is 'Evocatio'?
Summoning out the enemy Gods before a seige
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How did they summon out the enemy Gods?
They offered bigger temples/games to win them over- They want to bribe the Gods over to the Roman's side
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What is Devotio?
Roman commanders must dedicate themselves to the Underworld and must then be killed by the enemy
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What is Auspices?
Tane by Roman commanders before the battle to see if the signs were favourable with cautionary tales of disaster for those who ignored them,
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What is pax decorum?
THe need to make the Gods happy
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What happens if they aren't happy?
Things will go wrong, particularly around the Roman city
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When was the cult of Bacchus formed and where?
It began spreading into Itay in the early 2nd century
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Who did they worship and the problem with this?
Bacchus - He was not one of the standard Gods,
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What do the senate do?
They are angered by this so due to corruption, ilegality and immoral behaviour it was suppressed
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What does pottery show about who was most atrracted to worhsipping religion and how would they do this?
-Women, -It involved getting drunk with lots of sexual activity,
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Where did this religious worship occur and why did this worry the Romans?
It occured inside. Romans epxected religious worhsip to occur outside the Temples,
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Why do the leaders se this cut as a massive problem so what do they do?
As the Gods will be upset, -They crack down on it (the Consuls) and destory the Cult,
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What was the outcome?
Violent- Priests killed and cult banned from th city and country of Italy altogether and gets rid of the idea of Priests being allowed in the city
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DOes this violent reaction become more common?
Yes with more unknown religions,
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When did Caesar become Dictato for life?
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What title did Caesar gain in 63BC and what was this power?
Head of Pontifix Maximum- Head of group of priests
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By 47, what had Caesar been elected to?
To all other priestly colleges including that of augurs
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What was his status integrated into based on religion?
Temples and festivals
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Give an example of the divine honours Caesar had?
Temple erected to Caesar's clementia: Julian Luperci (priests) so a temple to him in all but name,
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When was Caesar given Tribuncian sacrosanctity and what was it?
45, -It meant he couldnt be killed without the GOds being against you- Protected by the Gods
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For Augustus, what was he appointed as in 48BC, when he was 14?
Pontifex, a priest
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From 41-40, what was Augustus appointed as and what does this mean?
Augur- Right to interpret messages of God,
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What role did he gain in 37BC?
An interpreter of the Sibylline books
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What can the people do based on praying after 27BC?
People can pray for his spirit to the Gods, like he was a God
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What did he claim in his autobiography about this?
He claimed he didn't allow people to worship him while he was alive- A
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What did he allow people to do instead?
He allowed peope to worship his spirit and the spirit of Rome
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Give an example of emphasising to worship his spirit and th espirit of ROme?
Statue's/ Temples dedicated to the spirit of August and Rome
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When was he appointed Septemior epulonum and what is this role?
16BC -Priests who arrange public festivals,
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WHat dd he retain which mean he was protected by the Gods?
Tribunician sacrosanctity
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When did Augustus become Rome's Chief Pontiff and the name of this title and what this title entailed?
-12BC, -Pontifex Maximus, -Formal position a 'head of the national church
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What title did Augustus gain in 2BC which meant what?
'Father of the 'Fatherland' or Peter Patriae so official deification had to await his death
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Although he wasn't a God in Rome, was he elsewhere and an example?
Yes- Egypt. He was divine as the Pharoahs
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In Egypt, what was undertaken in 3BC?
AN oath of total devotion and loyalty to Augustus- It was taken by all inhabitants in the region, including Roman citizens,
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In a way he is not just aKing but also what?
A Pope as well- He is in control of everything
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Under this religious guise, how many temples does he rebuild and how many does he build?
He rebuilds 82 temples and 14 new temples
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What happened on Augustus' death?
Divus Augustus- He is turned into a God,He was crowned as Jupiter alongside Roman, his mistress,
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Did others try and follow Augustus' religiou policy?
Yes his other Julio-Claudian successors tried to follow him, although neither Tiberius, nor Gaius nor Nero were posthumously deifed
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For Julio-Claudians, what happened at the time which was a major event?
33AD- Death of Jesus Christ- Deatb of a Jewish rebel
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What other Julio-Claudian declared himself a God?
Caligula and had people worship him,
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How did he refer to himself and how did others refer to him?
HE referred to himself as a God and he was referred to as Julius
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However, was worshipping an Emperor when alive normal for the West?
No it was usually only the East who worshipped living emperors and the west worhsipped dead emperors,
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Who cracked down on tightening religion?
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What honours did he remove?
Divine honours
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What did he expel from Rome?
Astrologers and eastern mystics
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Who did he crack down on?
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When a temple was to be built in his name in Alexandria, what was his response?
He said no
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What tempe did he remove from the city and why?
Temple of Isis-Returning to standard state Gods
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Under Nero, when was the Great Fire and who was blamed?
64Ad, -Christians,
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How many districts were destroyed and how many damaged?
It destroys 4/14 districts and damaged another 7
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Why was the fire so destructive?
-Wooden houses and narrow streets, -Went on for 6 days
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What wsa this the first indication of based on Christians?
First indication Romans weren't going to put up with Christians,
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The Antonines- Who was the first governor to encounter Christianity/
Pliny the YOunger
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How did the ROmans see Christians and why?
Villians- They were accused of getting up to weirdrites in churches such as cannibalism, drinkin the saviour's blood, eating his body and were incestuous,
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How were people tested for Christian beliefs?
They were told to eat the animals sacrified to the pagan God- Not doing so is a crime
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Who was hadrian's boyfriend?
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How did he die?
He died in an accident on the Nile, although there are arguments suggesting he may have killed himself,
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What does Hadrian turn Antinous into?
He is turned into a GOd
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What is named after him?
A city in Egypt
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What is created for him?
Shrines and statues
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How many were made?
There are more statues of Antinous than any other moral from the ancient world- Over 250 surviving,
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Was he popular?
Yes the people seem to have really taken to him
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Who made Hadrian into a God after his death?
Antoninus Pius
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Was Antoninus Pius deifed after his death?
Yes- Temple built to him in he Roman Forum- dedicated to his wife initallly and then also to him,
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For the Third century crisis under Severus, what did he outlaw about Christianity?
Conversion to Christianity on pain of death
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What is one reason why the public like him based on who he made into a God?
He made Commonus into a God who bought many of their public events
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When was the Emperor Decius ruling and what did he blame everythign wrong in the Empire on?
-250s, -The fault of Christians- They were ruining the peace of the Romans
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What did Decius issue?
A state wide persecution
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What did those accused of Christianity have t do?
They had to attend ceremonies to the Gods and sacrifices and eat the meat
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What happened if they passed?
He awarded them a certificated if they had saying 'I am not a Christian' to cary around at all times,
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For the Christian Empire, what event occured from 303-311AD and who enforced it?
-Great (Diocletianic) Persecution, -Primarily enforced by Diocletian and Galerius
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In 300Ad, what test continued for Christians?
Forcing those accused to eat the eat of a sacrified animal to the Pagan god
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In 303Ad what calls for the suppression of Christians?
Oracle of Didyma
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In addition, what is published in 303Ad?
The first publication of Diocletian's edict against the Christians,
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What was dstroyed?
Scriptures and places of worship
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What happeend to those refusing to eat the meat?
Tortured and executed
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How did the persecution change in 304?
It widened to all Christians not just bishps and other leaders
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Where were Christian persecutions worst?
In the East,
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Although under Constantius, was this Christian persecution enforced?
yes the whole empire had to, but he showed some sympathy,
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How many overall were killed?
3,500 an more suffered torture and imprisonment
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In the Fourth tetrarchy, what was introduced by Galerius in 311?
Edict of Tolerance
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What does the Edict of TOlerance do?
He has failed to eradicate Christianity and so accepts innocent people are being killed so stops the prsecutions
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What happens for the first time in 313 by Licinius?
Edict of Toleration is given from Constantine and Licinius legitimises Christian worhsip for the first time,
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Although, who continues to persecute Christians?
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For Constantine and christianity, what did he believe based on the idea the Emperor and church were now linked?
He was responsible to God and had a duty to protect the doctrine and uphold it
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What did he believe it was his duty to do? (3)
1) Root out heresies, 2) ensure church unity 3) Enforce doctrine,
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In 316 who did he act as a judge of and what was it about?
-Donatist heresy, -During the great persecution, there wer Christians who pretended they weren't and burnt their scriptires. However, Donatists in North Africa believe they shouldnt be allowed in church
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Was their belief undertaken?
No- This wasn't believed by Catholics so was a separate heresy
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In 325, what council was summoned and why?
Council of Nicaea, -To deliberate on Arian heresy
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What is Arian heresy?
Two interpretations of Christian scripture- Catholic doctrine believes the father, son and holy ghost are the same beign whereas Arian believe God is one being and the son and holy ghost are separate beings
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What did Con try to do based on this conflict?
He tried to stop the fighting and prevent Arian from carrying on and get people back to Catholicism
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What law was introduced about Jews, Christians and salvs?
Laws against Jews owning Slaves and conversion to Judaism on punishment of death,
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What was restricted too?
Congregations for Jewish services
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Jews are the first religion Christians deal with why?
To ensure they can become dominant
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After Constantine dies, how does he split the Roman empire between his sons and how was religion separated?
Constatine II- Britain, Spain, Gaul- Catholic, -Constans- Italy, Africa-Catholic -Constantius II-Greece, East-Arian
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Is Constantius a arian believer?
No he moves from Catholic beliefs from his father to Arian
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Who was the first Emperor since Constantine to declarehimself Pagan not Christian?
Julian the Apostate and Jovian
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What did he restrict?
Christian readings,
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What did he believe the best way to end heresies and schisms was?
To revert with paganism
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What did he believe Paganism offered?
He believed it was an open and inclusive form of religion
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Although, what did he base this paganism on and an example?
Baed it on christianity, with new pagan bishops in charge of cities,
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Did people live this idea of a pagan church?
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How did he die and what was the conspiracy around this?
363Ad against the Persians- Christian writers say it was God's punishment he was killed by the Persians,
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WHen did Theodosius become soel ruler?
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What religion was he and what was his tolerance for others?
-Catholic, -Intolerant of other religions and persecuted heretics
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When were the Theodosian decrees?
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What two things were banned based on Paganism
-Pagan festivals banned -Blood sacrifice banned
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What did he order to be abandoned an looted?
Sancturaries and temples
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What did he ban based on worship?
He banned worshipping statues
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What was destroyed in 392?
Museum of Alexadria
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What group was disbanded which was there since the beginning of rome?
The Vestal virgins- the eternal flame of Vesta extinguished
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What was remvoed from the Senate House in ROme?
Altar of victory
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In 393 what was cancelled?
Olmypic games
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Why di Ambrose, bishop of Milan, excommunicate him?
When Theodosius ordered the massacre of 1000 inhabitants,
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Why did Amulius, the one who killed King Numitor, kidnap her?


To ensure she cannot produce more sons to threaten his rule

Card 3


However, what happens to Rhea Silvia according to sources?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


According to Ovid, what is significant about this pregnancy?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why and How was Silvia killed in accordance to the traditional manner of Vestal virgins?


Preview of the front of card 5
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