Ancient Rome- Lecture 3 the Mid Republic-Military and Political

  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 27-04-17 20:34
When was this period?
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What feature in this period?
-OVerseas expansion, -Three punic wars with Carthage, -Dominance of Senate, -Expansion into East Mediterranean, -Sack of Corinth and Carthage,
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When was the First Punic War?
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Who is this against?
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Who invaded Southern Italy and who was this ROme's first encouter with?
King Pyrrhus of Epirus, -First encouter with the Greece
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In 264, why did Rome occupy Italy?
They felt protective of the smaller states and felt it was their job to protect these smaller states
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Why did Rome have massive problems with the Carthagianian Empire?
They had mass colonies, mass area of trade, highly civilised and historical state,
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Where did they control the majority of?
North African coast, France, Sicily
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Why did it control many Empires?
It was a large sea faring Empire so had a control of large mass of land
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Where oes the term Punic come from?
The Latin Phoenica
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What does Polybius argue about relations with Rome and the Carthigian Empire?
He argues there was a contract/ agreement between them sicne when the Roman Empire was created
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What did these agreements states?
They agreed to not interefere in their respective spheres of interest
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However do all historians agree with this?
No it is questionable- The idea the Romans knew the Carthaginian Empire existed in the beginning is a lie
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When is this treaty broken?
In 264 when Italian mercenaries from Campania attack Messana in Sicily
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who did Messana ask for help but how did Rome view this?
Carthaginian Empire was asked for help but Rome viewed this as a violation of the treaty
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What did Rome do?
They sent an army to protect Messana
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Did all of Rome want to go to war?
No - the Senate did nto vote for action but the assembly did
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Why did people se this war as inevitable?
Due to Rome's growing ideas about becoming a large Empire although there was already a large Empire
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Who essentially was ROme aspiring to be?
Like the Carthaginian Empire who was a large trading Empire and many colonies
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Was it their intention to go to war with the Cathingian Empire?
No but they decided by the end of the century they would take over many countries in the Mediterranean
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Overall what was this a war over?
Control of Sicily
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Who won and what did they expand into their provinces?
Rome- Took over Sardinia and Sicily
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However, what covered the Carthage's territorial losses?
Spain in 219BC
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Who led this expansion into Rome and what was he in Carthage?
Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal. He led the Oligarchy in Carthage
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How did he view the Romans?
He hated them
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Did they stop expanding in Spain?
No they pushed further and further North
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What caused the Second Punic War?
Worries of how far they would keep expanding
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When was the Second Punic War?
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Where did war break out?
Over Spain
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What did the Romans assume about this war and an example to show this?
They assumed it would be the same as the first, -They prepared a fleet to take the city itself,
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Instead, who is the leader of the Carthage army and what does he do?
Hannibal, -He marches into Italy over the Alps
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What/ who trked over the Alps as part of his army?
Infantry, cavalry, elephants with rafts
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Was this Trek a good idea?
The Trek itself wiped out half of his army so wasn't a great success but the march paid off for him
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What and when was the first Battle?
battle of Trebia Dec 218BC
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How many in the army did Carthage have?
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How many did ROme have?
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How many did C lose?
4000 men
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How many did R lose?
28,000 men
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Who won and so what did the winner do?
Hannibal won which gave him a taste for war and he continued to march
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When was the next batle and when?
battle of Trasimene 217BC
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How many in the army did C have?
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How many in the army did R have?
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How many did C lose?
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How many did R lose?
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How was Hannibal gaining from these battles?
His army was increasing in size as they forced the men to fight as they won areas,
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What was the name of the next Battle and when?
battle of Cannar 216BC
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How many were in C's army?
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How many were in R's army?
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How many did C lose?
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How many did R lose?
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Who was Rome also fighting battles with at the same time?
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What did it look like when Hannibal invaded Italy?
he won blow after blow and looked like he would destroy Italy
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However, would the Romans surrender?
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What was Rome's tactic?
Allow Hannibal to take Italy, attack,steal and plunder while they did nothing
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Give the name of a consul who was part of this idea and his 'nickname'?
Fabius Maximum Cunctator- The Delayer
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How long does Hannibal stay in SOuthern Italy for?
He attacks and causes damage for 14 years
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During this time describe Rome's power?
They have no power and no territory left
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Who do Romes allies do?
Make peace with Hannibal rather than help ROme
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What was ROme doing at the same time as this si happening?
THey take back Sicily, seized Spain and fighting against Macedonia and they invade North Africa
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Where is Hannibal called to from Italy and when?
Ot North Africa in 203 as Rome invades
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When was the next battle and when?
Battle of Zama 202BC
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Who ledthe battle and how successeful was he in SPain?
P.Cornelius Scipio (africanus) led the battle, -This works quite well, takes over large portions of Spain, encouraged the locals to fight back against the C Empire
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Where do Scipio and Hannibal meet?
Just outside Carthage
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Why is C defeated?
Romes army was fresher and more ready to fight whereas Hannibals army was exhausted
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What happens to hannibal?
he leaves the battle in disgrace- Wanders around Greece for the next 30 years until he dies
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When was the Peace Treaty created?
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What did C have to give R based on gold?
10,000 talents of gold over 50 years
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What did C have to surrender to R?
All elphants and ships
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What did C have to promise about war?
No war would be waged outside Africa and only able to wage war in Africa with Rome's permission
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Where do R confiscate?
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Where is Rome's sole power now?
In Mediterranean
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After this, who does Rome turn its attention to?
Greece and dealign with Spain
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What occurs between Spain and ROme?
They aren't happy with Rome taking over- There are around 50/60 years of fighting by insurgents there
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Where are there also fights to show how they have spread?
Places such as Asia Minor, Syria
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What did the defeat of the C Empire bring for Rome?
Wealth and discovery of new mines
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When was the Third Punic War?
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By this time were Rome still in Carthrage
No they had left
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Who was Cato the ELder?
He was consul in 195BC and censor 184BC
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What did he lead calls for?
Carthage to be completley annihilated
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What did he end every speech with?
'Cathago delenda est'-Carthage must be destryed
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How did Romans describe him?
As a tiresome as well as moaning but overall a popular man
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When the the Senate decide to vote on if they should wage war against the C Empire?
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What did the C Empire do?
They broke the Treaty set up
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When was the sack of Carthage?
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Was it easy to destroy the city?
They still managed to hold out against the Romans for three years bu they had no power and little people
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Describe the destruction that occured?
Women and children ***** in streets, survivors sold to slaves, city burnt to the ground, salt thrown to the ground to ensure nothing would grow there again
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For Rome and the Greek East, while these wars were occuring, Rome is taking over the East by waht?
starting conflicts with Hellenistic tribes in the East
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How is the idea of imperial changing with this taking over?
Rather than just defending themselves, in the East they are creating the trouble and seeking to invade,
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How was Rome's relationships with these cities?
Thye had good alliances
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However, who in Macedonia had enough of the Romans and what did he want?
Philip V- He wanted mroe land for himself
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When was the first Macedonian War?
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What does this war directly overlap with/
The Second Punic War
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What did Philip V do to cause this?
He pushed eastward
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What peace treaty was signed and when?
Peace of Phoencia, -204BC
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What did this agree?
Thus agreed to stay out of each other's way ad avoid one another
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How long did this last and why?
Four years due to generic terms
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When was the second Macedonian war?
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At which battke was phillip defeated and when was it?
Battle of Cynoscephalae or battle of the dog's head, -197BC
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What did Rome declare for Greece?
They declared Greece 'free' from Macedonian tyranny and withdraws
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What war is there from 192-188BC?
Seleucid/ Syrian War
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Where did Selucid try to invade?
They tried to force themselves in tothe Mediterranean
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What did ROme do and who won?
They forced Selucid from the Mediterranean and back to mainland- They were efeated by the Romans in Aegean
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Therefore what was the reason behind their fights?
Protecting the freedom of th mediterranean and taking land
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When was the Third Macedonian War?
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Who was Philip succeeded by?
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What was the Battle in 168 and who headed it?
Battle of Pydna, -Lucius Aemilius Paullus
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After this, what does Rome do in Greece?
They estbalish a permanent foothold
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How many politicians were executed?
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How many prisoners of war were takne to ROme including who?
1000 including Polybius the Historian
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How many cities were destoryed?
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How many were ensalved?
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How much was gained in booty?
300,00 sesterces in compensation from the Greeks
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What was Lucius awarded on his return?
A triumph- Shows success of military- he was depicated as a God and rode a four horse chariot with his army, and a parade of his captives and spoils of war
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What does this period show for Rome?
The heaviest period of imperialist behaviour
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When is Corinth destroyed in 146BC?
After a league of Greeks tried to show they were gaining independence- Romans show them who was the leader
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What happens in 133BC?
Attalus III leaves the Kingdom of Pergamum to the Romans in his will to ensure the Romans would protect themrather than attack them
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For consequences of the Empire, how many people were enslave by ROme in the first hald of the 2nd century?
1/4 of a million
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How was the army after all these wars? How many were killed?
it was deplered- From 201-151BC, 94,000 soldiers were killed
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Why was it difficult to replenish?
As most of the poor people didn't have enough money to buy their own armour or weapons to become a soldier
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Where the people happy with wars in Spain?
No it was unpopular- In 144Bc there were riots
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What were allies increasingly pressurised for/
To supply manpower and money for Rome- LEads to Social Wars
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What feature in this period?


-OVerseas expansion, -Three punic wars with Carthage, -Dominance of Senate, -Expansion into East Mediterranean, -Sack of Corinth and Carthage,

Card 3


When was the First Punic War?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Who is this against?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Who invaded Southern Italy and who was this ROme's first encouter with?


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