- Created by: Heather
- Created on: 26-04-17 14:52
Who was the fifth King of Rome?
Tarquin the first
1 of 457
What two things did he build?
Circus maximus, -Cloaca maxima
2 of 457
What was the circus maximus?
A chariot racing stadium and mass entertainment venue
3 of 457
What was the cloaca Maxima?
The great sewer that runs under Rome
4 of 457
How many Kings were there?
5 of 457
Are the 7 Kings myths or are they histories?
Arguably the Romans believed these stories but they are myths and stories
6 of 457
What is a problem with the chronology?
Unreliable-ruling time between the Kings is evenly divided for aroun 35 years which is strange
7 of 457
What is also strange about what each King did?
It is strange each King has its own rule e.g. Romulus- Founder, Numa-Religion, Hostilius- War, Ancus- Administratio
8 of 457
What is also too neat about the 7 Kings?
There are 7 Kings and 7 hills
9 of 457
Is there any contemporary evidence for this history?
No- There is sparse and fragmentary evidence and no contemporary literature
10 of 457
Where/ when doesthe evidence come from?
It is all from Emperor Augustus- This is a long time after the period,
11 of 457
Why would Augustus want to create this chronology?
Propoganda- He wanted to refound the city, suggesting he was sticking to the old ways but reforming and changing them,
12 of 457
What is another problem with the time when the Kings were expelled from Rome?
THe Kings were expelled from ROme in 509BC and the Republic emerges. However, the Greeks removed theri tyrants in 507BC- Suspiciously at the same time, and the Romans did it before the Greeks showing it was their idea
13 of 457
What story from the Greeks was taken and reformed in whose book to transform Roman stories?
Sotry of Herodotus was reformed in the book Livy wrote
14 of 457
Therefore, since the 19th century, what do they believe the Roman King histories are taken from?
Elsewhere such as the Greeks and are used as mythical stories to give the Romans a backstory
15 of 457
Why do they argue the Romans felt the need to give themselves a back story?
As when they began writing stuf down in 260BC, prior to this nothing was written down so they need to give themelves as origin story and make it fit together
16 of 457
However, do all historians agree?
No- Some historians such as Tim Cornell support that early ROme was ruled by Kings and there is little doubt
17 of 457
What is one major archeological finding discovered in 1899 by who?
Lapis Niger found by Giacomo Boni
18 of 457
When looking for evidence that there were Kings, where was this stone found?
In a sanctuary in the Forum
19 of 457
What was on this stone?
Inscription in Archaic Latin from around 500BC- Earliest example of Latin surviving
20 of 457
What particular word is one the stone and how does this perhaps prove there were Kings?
-Reaci, which is the old dated version of the word rex which can mean King or priest,
21 of 457
What is the oldest building in the Forum Romanum and when was it from?
Regia- Originally a building and King's Palace name given to it, -625BC
22 of 457
What was also found based on pottery?
Piece of pottery found with the word Rex on it- King's palace or a priests house?
23 of 457
Walls surviving in ROme on what Hill? Which King does this suggest?
Palentine Hill with Romulus
24 of 457
When does the wall date back to?
The Greek Archaic period
25 of 457
However, what does the wall actually tell us?
I doesn't tell us who built it as there are no inscriptions
26 of 457
What has also been found on Palentine Hill and what do archeologists say about what this is?
-There are huts found, -Keen to say that this is Romulus' city,
27 of 457
However, what are the limits of this find?
They are just aged huts and we have no idea if it was a whole village or not
28 of 457
What does evidence show about Alba Longa?
It shows the city was destroyed at some point- Burned to the ground
29 of 457
Although, what does archeologic evidence show about when it was burnt and does this fit the histories?
-Burnt in 8th century, 700BC so too early fpr the Hostilius story
30 of 457
For La Granda Rome dei Tarquinii, how was the city transformed around the 6th century?
From being built around a large swamp which was drained by large sewer systems built under the city
31 of 457
Does evidence support this?
Yes- There are buildings that have survived from this time so definitely happened but whether it was done by one of the Kings is doubtful
32 of 457
What did Tarquin I definitely build on the Capitoline Hill and how do we know?
Temple of Jupiter from the 6th century, -Exists from remains
33 of 457
Therefore, what do we need to ask ourselves about early Rome?
Early Rome: Myth or history
34 of 457
For early republic, who is the main source and when is he writing for the period 509-264?
35 of 457
What was his purpose of writing in Augustus' time?
To show *** Augustus created the old ways so was a propoganda method - Suggesting he is trying to retorethe Republic to its original state but he is becoming overall ruler,
36 of 457
What is the only literature surviving from the period?
The Twelve Tablets
37 of 457
When were they created? what are they similar to from Greece?
-450s, -Similar to Athenian tablets
38 of 457
whart are the tablets?
Codification of Roman law and basis of Roman law for centuries
39 of 457
Did later laws used these tablets?
They would use them as startig points and would expand on them or contradict them
40 of 457
Give one example of a law based on what two types of families?
-Denies marriage between plebeian families and patriachan families
41 of 457
For Etruscan architecute, what was pomerium?
It was a sacrd religious boundary around the city of Rome and cities controlled by Rome- Rome existed only in this boundary. Evetything outside was just territory
42 of 457
What was an Etruscan art form?
43 of 457
What was built follow Etruscan styles?
Temple of jupiter Capolinus
44 of 457
What design did the Temple of Portunus have which made it Etruscan in style?
It was raised on a plinth with stairs leading up to it
45 of 457
Who were theEtruscans influenced by?
The Greek from 6th century BC
46 of 457
When did Greek artists migrate to Rome and why?
3rd centuy BC, -As Rome grew in power and wealth
47 of 457
How was Greek art viewed?
It became desirable amongst upper classes
48 of 457
What event brought eve more art into the city and Greek artistic techniques?
Sack of Corinth
49 of 457
What were the two indigenous developments created in the early republic?
1) Concrete, 2) The Arch
50 of 457
Did the Greeks used concrete?
No- Roman development
51 of 457
How did tye make it?
Mortar made from volanic rock as well as lime and water
52 of 457
Give two examples of Arches?
1) Porticus Aemilia 193BC, 2) Sanuary of Fortuna
53 of 457
For the mid Republic, what periods do the sources come form?
Late republic and imperial sources
54 of 457
What is the archeological findings like?
55 of 457
For literary evidence, when do they begin to write things down, and perhaps a reason why?
240s-It coincides with whn Greek influence begins,
56 of 457
For histories, who was the first who wrote Roman histories and who was he?
Fabius Pictor- He was actually Greek
57 of 457
What does he cover in his works?
Mythical origins and ends with Second Punic War
58 of 457
Are any of the originas surviving?
No but later authors describe his work,
59 of 457
What was Fabius Pictor the first to reconcile based on the Greek view about how ROme founded?
He was first it seems to have reconciled the Grek view that Aeneas had founded rome wth the Roman view that it was Romulus
60 of 457
What other writer lived from 234-149BC?
Cato the Elder
61 of 457
What was his role in Rome?
He was an ex-consul and censor,
62 of 457
What did he write?
Origines in Latin- This was concerned wth ealry history, npt only of Rome but of other Italian cities and then discusses the Punic wars and his own lifetime,
63 of 457
While he wrtoe a series of works, which are the only ones to survive?
One about farming
64 of 457
From Cato's time, what did Romans usually write their histories ?
65 of 457
Although, were there Greek incluences and an example of who?
Yes- Polybius who was aGreek hostage taken to Rome
66 of 457
What did he aim to write?
A 'pragmatic' history, a political and militayr history, which would be of practical value for the serious reader
67 of 457
What did he intend to do with his writing after?
Send it to Greece to show how civilised they are
68 of 457
What in particular did he write about
The three Punic wars
69 of 457
How many works survive?
First 5 books survive out of 40 the later parts are missing
70 of 457
What mixed constutions does he write about?
Kingship e.g. COnsuls, Gerousia- Senate, Democracy- Assemblies
71 of 457
Give some exampes of people who produced comic plays?
72 of 457
Who wrote poetry in this period? Is it survivng?
Ennius- Now lost
73 of 457
Who was a key literary source from later periods?
Livy, writing under period of Augustus
74 of 457
What did he write and how many books does it consist of?
Ab Urbe Condita ('From the foundation of the city'- 143 books writte with 35 surviving
75 of 457
What does it begin with?
76 of 457
Who did he base the majority of his work on?
77 of 457
How reliable is it?
Generally reliable- The beginning of the Roman Empire was made up, but the Mid Republic works was based on other historians
78 of 457
FOr material evidence, what increases in the amount found from the early republic?
There is more archeological traces, epigraphy etc.
79 of 457
What are there often military remains from?
80 of 457
What contemporary items have been found such as what?
Coinage, -Propoganda coin of the 'Wolf of Rome' with Romanus and marching into war,
81 of 457
When was the 3rd Macedonian war?
82 of 457
As a consequence of this, what was there an influx in from Greece?
Influx of Greek culture- Greek education, rhetoric, political idealism
83 of 457
What in particularly from Greece begins to take off in this period?
Roman philosophy and beginning to think about their existence
84 of 457
Therefore, overall what was there a growth in baed on other cultures?
Growth in multiculturalism- Tkae ideas, rhetoric, art, philosophy, literature etc from other societies and culture
85 of 457
Give five examples of plays of Plautus?
1) Amphitryo, 2) Mercator and Casina 3) Rudens 4) Bacchides 5) Menaechmi
86 of 457
What was Amphitryo about?
Jupiter descends to earth disguised as Amphityro to seduce Amphitryo's wife
87 of 457
What was this a farce around?
88 of 457
What is the mercator about?
Mercator (the businessman)- Fahter and son in love with the same girl
89 of 457
What does Rudens mean and what is it about?
9The Rope)- Slave dealer shipwrecked in N.Africa and one of the slaves is the lon lost daughter of a man living there in exile
90 of 457
What is Bacchides about?
Scheming slave plotting to trick his master out of money
91 of 457
What is Menaechmi about?
Twin brothers and twin slaves in hilarious antics- Comedy of Errors
92 of 457
Is there a Greek influence form their plays?
They use Greek comedy style in a Roman wya- almost a rip off of Greek plays
93 of 457
For common themes within plays, what is one based on obstacles and love?
Overcoming of some apparent obstacles to the course of true love
94 of 457
What is another common theme based on slaves?
Glorification of scheming slave
95 of 457
What is another common theme based on speech?
Colloquial speech wordplay and puns
96 of 457
What is another common them based on where plays were set?
Set in imaginary world (set in Greece but included Roman/Italian features leadign to a dissolute lifestyle
97 of 457
Give the names of two comedy writers?
Terence and Ennius
98 of 457
When was Terence writing?
99 of 457
How many survive and what was it based on?
6, -based on Greek comedies, maybe even a translation
100 of 457
Give two examples of his comedies?
Andria (The Woman from Anros), -Hecyra
101 of 457
Describe the plot of Andria?
Pamphilus in love with lowly girl from Andros, but she turns out to be an aristocrat in the end
102 of 457
Describe the plor of Hecyra?
YOung man's wife pregnant from ****, but it turns out that her own husband ****d her one night when drunk in the sreet
103 of 457
What is the language style of the plays?
Simple Latin- Elegance and simplicity reowned
104 of 457
Why do they survive?
They were used as a text for Latin in school
105 of 457
When was Ennius writing?
106 of 457
Who does he claim to be reincarnated from?
107 of 457
What did he write?
-Tragedies and comedies, -Satires, -Epics, -Annals
108 of 457
How many od his tragedies and comedies survive?
109 of 457
How many of his satires and epics survive?
110 of 457
Does his Annals survive and if so what survives?
Yes- Epic in 18 books about Roman history- Only 600 out of 20,000 lines survive,
111 of 457
What else was there a mass Greek influence over?
112 of 457
What two temples were influenced by Greeks, although what is a Roman style?
-Temple of Hercules Victor, -largo Argentina Temples -The round temples are Roman styled
113 of 457
Where is the Temple of Hercules Victor and when was it built?
Forum Boarium, -2nd century BC
114 of 457
Who created it and does it survive?
Achaicus, -Destroyed in Corinth?
115 of 457
What were the largo Argentina Temples? When and where?
They were built as a series of temples designed in the 2nd century 0On Campus Martius
116 of 457
What was Temple A a temple to and when was it built?
Temple of Juturna- Built 241 - A nymph from the origin myths of ROme
117 of 457
What was Temple B a temple to?
Temple of Fortuna, -Built 101 BC
118 of 457
What was Temple C a temple to?
Temple of Feronia, -Built 4th or 3rd century BC
119 of 457
What was Temple D a temple to?
Temple of the Lares, -Built 17BC
120 of 457
For the late Republic, who was an important Roman historian and when was he writing?
121 of 457
What does writer Sallus suggest was the best of rimes which is why most books start with this?
Idea mid-republic is the best of times so starting point for many
122 of 457
When did Sallust begin writing?
When Caesar was murdered
123 of 457
What style writing did he have?
He had short simple sentences and ponderous vocabularly of the early annalists with greater variety of language and tone,
124 of 457
What was his major work and what did it deal with?
Histories, -Dealth with the late Republican history down to 67BC
125 of 457
How much survives?
It only survives in fragments
126 of 457
What else survives from him?
Monographs Catiline and Jugurtha
127 of 457
How did later historians view Tiberius?
They were sympathetic as he was caught up in the senate
128 of 457
*** did contemporaries such as who view him?
Those close to his day are more hostile e.g. Cicero
129 of 457
Why was cicero hostile?
Cicero was a Senator and so more hostile and claimed all his acts were illegal,
130 of 457
Who was the next consul?
131 of 457
How did tests see him?
They were less sympathetic about him and rhetorically very talented
132 of 457
As there is a shift in poets and poetry, what movement in the late republic is crucial and what are they?
-Neoteric movement, -Group of poets from upper classes who take the profession of poetry seriously
133 of 457
Give some names of those involved?
Catallus, Calvus, Cinna and others
134 of 457
When was catullus writing?
135 of 457
What is Catullus probably best known for?
His love poetry,
136 of 457
Was he popular?
His poetry was popular and he was particularly popular in ROme
137 of 457
How did he view Caesar and how do we know?
He hated Caesar- Number of poems describe him in unflattering terms,
138 of 457
What shows Catullus' controversial manner by who he dedicated his poems too?
It was poetry to a boy shows movement on sexuality as well as being infatuated with a married women,
139 of 457
Who lived from 94-55BC?
140 of 457
what was his belief based on epicurus?
He was keen on the idea of living life as it is now as we don't know whats coming
141 of 457
What did he write which consisted of how many books?
De Rerum Natura, or On the Nature of Things, -6books
142 of 457
What was the theme of hsi books?
To engage reason and imagination for his Epicurean explanation of the universe
143 of 457
What was Book 1 and 2 about?
Basic metaphysical and physical doctine of Epicureanism,
144 of 457
What is the third book about?
he expounds the structure of the soul and its morality and how Epicurus vanishes the fear of death
145 of 457
What is the fourth book about?
It defends the Epicurean theory of perception, by whcih objects give off a thin film of atoms
146 of 457
What is te fifth book about?
Turns to cosmos, which originated from the concourse of reason to think of such a thing,
147 of 457
Wat is the last book about?
Give a non-theological explanation of the origin of life and the development of civilisation,
148 of 457
What did Caesar write and what about?
Historical commentaries about the Gallic Wars and the Civil War
149 of 457
How is the styleof writing?
COncise and clear Latin unlike Cicero
150 of 457
What is his writing useful for?
Useful easy way to learn Latin
151 of 457
What is the style of both in a way apart from one aspect?
Both are autobiographies in a way except for how he refers to himsef in third person
152 of 457
Why is it an interesting account?
It tells us about the Gauls and an insight into how the Romans felt about these tribes
153 of 457
What was Cicero's role?
Roman senator and orator
154 of 457
What did he write?
Letters, speeches, philosophy, poetry
155 of 457
How did the letters survive?
Hundreds survived and gathered by his slaves after his death and published
156 of 457
Give an exampe of a speech published?
Pro Roscio in Catilinam- Sulla wanted Roscio dead but Cicero stood up for him
157 of 457
Did he write poetry?
Yes biut it is lost
158 of 457
What line is there of his poetry and what does it suggest about his poetry?
One line is quoted in a text showing bad poetry. It was an epic about himself and his consulship, 'Oh fortune Rome'
159 of 457
What tradition was imported from Greece into Rome and what was it?
Veristic portraiture which idealised and perfected the face and body
160 of 457
Did the Romans keep with this style?
Partly- They created a realistic image for the face but it was placed on a perfect body
161 of 457
What was built in the late Republic which is where Caesar was assassinated?
Theatre of Pompey
162 of 457
What di Caesar build next to the Roman Forum. Why did he do this?
Forum of Caesar which continued Venus Conetus Founder of Rome)- Mne wanted to leave parts of Rome after their name
163 of 457
Why was coinage foudn significant form this period?
Caesar was the first living person to appear on coins
164 of 457
For the Age of Augustus,who again produced literature in this period like the last?
165 of 457
When was he a tribune and who did he attack physically?
166 of 457
What are the two histories he has wrote?
Catilinia and Jugurtha
167 of 457
How are they to read?
They are dificult to read, dense, sarcastic and satirical
168 of 457
What view does it give us about the cross over period?
The Senate's view,
169 of 457
When was Livy alive?
64BC to AD17
170 of 457
Why did he come to ROme in his 30s?
Specifically to teach and write history- Trained in rhetoric and philosophy
171 of 457
What was his relationship with Augustus?
He became friendly with Augustus and his family and taught the Emperor Claudius
172 of 457
How many books did he write?
173 of 457
What were they about?
Origins of Rome down to 9BC
174 of 457
How many books survive?
35 and summaries of the rest
175 of 457
What was he the first style of writer whose work survives?
First annalistic writer
176 of 457
How were his works to read?
Tge history was the last great annalistic history of the Republic writte in Latin.
177 of 457
What was his appraoch to the subject like?
It was conservative, as had probably been traditional among annalists- In wars he was patriotic, in politics he supported senatorial authority,
178 of 457
Arguably what could have been his motives behidn his books?
Augustian propoganda to emphasis his rule since he was a friend, or was he more independent?
179 of 457
who was born in 60Bc and died 7BC?
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
180 of 457
Who was he?
A greek historian writing in Rome in the time of Augustus
181 of 457
What did he do in ROme?
He trained in rhetoric and taught in Rome
182 of 457
What were the Roman Antiquities?
History in 20 books, from the foundation of Rome to the first Punic war
183 of 457
What did he also write that were commentaries on orators and historians such as who?
Critical essays e.g. Lysias, Isocrates, Demosthenes and Thucydides
184 of 457
When was Virgil born and when did he die?
70Bc and died 19BC
185 of 457
Where was he educated?
Cremona, Milan, Rome
186 of 457
What circle did he enter?
Circle of Maecenas as a patron
187 of 457
Who did he act as for Augustus and what did he encourage?
he acted as Augustus' literay patron and encouraged writers to come and glorify Rome
188 of 457
What was his first published work and when was it published?
189 of 457
What were the eclogue and whose did it resemble?
Bucolic poetry like Theocritus
190 of 457
What was published in 29BC?
191 of 457
What was Georgics and whose did it resemble as what were they about?
Bucolic poetry like Hesoid- It was farming poetry as well as about the countryside
192 of 457
When was the Aeneid began?
19BC but not finished as he died
193 of 457
What was the Aeneid?
An epic poem like Homer and the Odyssey
194 of 457
What was it about?
It was about finding the site that would become Rome
195 of 457
How did Livy view this epic?
he didn't like it and wanted it to be burnt on this death
196 of 457
How did it survive?
Augustus ignored his wishes- It was a great nationalistic material piece and fits the pattern of what Maecenas wanted to achiev,
197 of 457
Who was born in 43BC and died 17Ad?
198 of 457
Where was he educated and his role?
In Rome and he abandoned public life for poetry- Rejects fathers want for him to be a politician
199 of 457
What label has been placed on Ovid about Augustus and is this true?
That he was anti-Augustan- He was indeed irreverent towards Augustus' state, laws, image etc but his later books bow to Augustus
200 of 457
What was hist first poem and when?
Amores-it had 2 editions. The first was begun in 25BC and issued over the next ten eyars and the second was published at the turn of the millenium
201 of 457
What is the Amores about?
About him ensalvign himself to another woman, being locked out of the house by her etc.
202 of 457
What did he write in 16BC?
Heroides or 'Letters from Heroines'
203 of 457
What were these about?
Written by abandoned mythical women writing to their husband
204 of 457
How popular was this?
Sp popular in his day that after people copied his work out
205 of 457
What tragery is missing from his works?
206 of 457
What treatise did he next publish in 1BC?
Ars Amatoria or the Art of Love
207 of 457
Why was this book so scandalous?
It encouraged adultery, about how men show chat up married women, the best place to pick up prostitues is the building dedicated to Augustus' wife
208 of 457
What did this lead for him by Augustus?
It led him to become exiled for carmen et error- A song and a mistake
209 of 457
However, what could be another reason for this exile based on his popularity?
He became so popular and so famou Augustus had to do something about it- The treatise was in a mocking and joke form
210 of 457
What coud be another reason bsaed on sexual relatios?
He was big friends with Julia, the granddaughter of Augustus, so perhap sexual relations were going on between them,
211 of 457
Before he was exiled, what work was published from 1-4AD?
212 of 457
What did the Fasti do / what was it about?
It went through the Roman calander offering causes for events in the Roman year
213 of 457
How can this be interpreted differently?
There is definitely some praise about Augustus and Rome in there, crawling and begging to Augustus, but there is also a sarcastic and difficult undertone,
214 of 457
Give an example of how Ovid actualy mocks him in this?
He begins by saying "augustus is like jupiter" who is a gambler and womaniser-
215 of 457
What does this perhaps suggest about Ovid and the banishment?
It suggests he realises its pointless to try and appease him
216 of 457
What months does he forget to continue his sarcasm?
he ends in June, forgetting July and August
217 of 457
After he was banished, what wsa Ovid's great hexameter poem and when was t written?
metamorphoses or transformations, -5BC-8AD
218 of 457
How many books did it cover?
219 of 457
What is it about?
He assembles dozens of attractive stories from myth, stories which end in the metamorphosis of characters into animals and plants and other forms
220 of 457
How does he end this and perhaps the reason why?
he ends it with Caesar beign transformed and being made into a star in heaven- Trying to get himself into Augustus' good graces,
221 of 457
What two other thinks did he write and when?
Tristia (sad songs 12Ad) -Epistulae ex Ponto (letters from the sea 14-15AD)
222 of 457
When was Propertius born and died?
Born 50BC, died 15BC
223 of 457
Who did he support in the civil war?
224 of 457
Why did his family lost his home and farm in 42BC?
It was shared out amongst the triumvirs' veterans
225 of 457
What did he first published in 29BC?
First collection of love elegies in the form of monobiblios (single books)
226 of 457
What kind of issues does he address in his work?
The attitude that a man should do something with his life but he is unemployabe in any conventional means outside of poetry,
227 of 457
What is Book 1 about?
He declares his position on life and love
228 of 457
What are the poems about?
They are about Cynthia and either dramatic and staged interaction between himself or Cynthia or other characters, or rhetrorical, speeches of indignation, pain, joy to various addressses
229 of 457
Who was born in Rome in 55BC and died in 25BC?
230 of 457
What was his rank?
Equestrian rank, but very wealthy
231 of 457
What did he write?
2 books of elegies
232 of 457
What was attributed in his name but was it actually from him?
A third book but was actually by other people, including the female poet Sulpicia
233 of 457
Who was his patron?
234 of 457
How did he die?
He fell ill on a trip takn to Greece
235 of 457
When did Horace die and was born?
Born 65BC, died 8BC
236 of 457
What side did he support at the Battle of Philippi?
237 of 457
What did Augustus do to him?
He was forgiven and thanked his clemency for writing his poetry for him
238 of 457
Who was he great friends with?
maecenas who was his patron
239 of 457
What sorts of things did he write in the 30s?
Satires, letters and epodes
240 of 457
What did he write in the 20s and what was it about>
Odes- A rigning endorsement of Augustus
241 of 457
For art in the Augustian period, how many temples were rebuilt in the city?
242 of 457
he found the city in what and left it in what?
243 of 457
What was built in 29BC dedicated to who?
Temple of Divus Julius dedicated to him
244 of 457
What did he restore apart from various temples?
Theatres, aquefucts, roads
245 of 457
What Theatres were built?
The Pantheon and the Theatre of marcellus
246 of 457
What was created to tell the time in the field of Mars
horologium *sundial) of Augustus
247 of 457
When was the Forum of Augustus built and where?
2BC in the Mddle next to the Temple of Mars
248 of 457
What altar did he built dedicared to who?
Ara pacis in Rome dedicated to Pax, Roman God of Peace
249 of 457
what was he very keen on based on his image?
Keen on promoting his image- He creatd an image for his family- Everyone had to look the same so they coud be part of the family
250 of 457
What were the marble statues like/?
They often had bright colours and would be seen from a distance
251 of 457
For the Julio-Claudians, how do the first and second centuries depict emperors?
They use art well to depict emperors
252 of 457
However, what begins to happen to statues?
They become less made and mor eused for emperor's depictions and later no statues
253 of 457
What are our three main sources for this period?
Tacitus, -Suetonius, -Cassius Dio
254 of 457
For tactius, when was he writing?
100-110Ad under Emperor Trajan
255 of 457
What as his role
Senator and son in law of Agricola
256 of 457
What were his views on the monarchy?
257 of 457
How does he write about the Emperors?
He had a very negaitve view as he wasn't a friend ofthe imperial household
258 of 457
Is he seen as accurate?
For many years he was seen as the most important and accurate of sources but recently this isn't the case
259 of 457
How have historians imparted their judgement?
based on how the 20th century deals with tyrants, this can have a negaitve effect on our views and so people begin to question him
260 of 457
When was Suetonius writing as what?
AD120 as a biographer under Hadrian
261 of 457
Where did he work?
262 of 457
What was he interested in which Hadrian also was? What was this?
Physiognomics- Belief you can tell someone's character from their appearance
263 of 457
Increasingly what is there with each Emperor based on physiogonomics?
There is usally a paragraph dedicated to how the Emperor looks and his appearance so other followers can tell what sort of a person he is and is going to be
264 of 457
What idea does physiognomics originally stem from?
Greek idea where human beings are compared to different animals such as lions and panthers
265 of 457
Who were men associated with?
Someone who had large flowing locks like Alexander must be lion like- Bold, aggressive like men
266 of 457
Who were women assoaicted with and why?
Panthers- Percieved to be cunning and deceitful,
267 of 457
What did he focus on rather than focusing on important events and why?
He focuses on morals, virtues, characteritics as events don't tell us about the Emperor's personality,
268 of 457
Instead of presenting a history, what is he presenting?
A character study
269 of 457
When was Cassius dio writing?
225AD under the Severan dynasty
270 of 457
What was his role?
Historian and consul
271 of 457
Why are his sources problematic?
As he is a close friend wih the dynasty, so close he was made consul
272 of 457
How does he portray the dynasty?
He was interested in showing how great it wsa
273 of 457
How is he selective in his writing?
He is way more interested in sex and violence than Tacitus
274 of 457
When did Tiberius rule?
275 of 457
How was he presented through physiognomy?
He is left handed which is seen as bad in the Roman word- Comes from Latin word sinister so seen as evil. He has large eyes,- Overall shows hes evil
276 of 457
When did Caligula rule?
277 of 457
How was he preented through physiognomy?
Disproportionate hair- None on his head and too much on his body shows questionable character,
278 of 457
When did Emperor Cladius rule?
279 of 457
How did sources view him such as Livy?
Aren't sympathetic- Livy said that people used ot call him names and make fun of his stammer, and were mean to him and so Claudius didn't trust anyon who made fun of him after
280 of 457
How did he die in 54AD and what were his last words according to Seneca in comparison to Augustus?
-Poison, perhaps by Agrippina, -His last words were 'I **** myself' in contrast to August to his wife 'Be mindful of our marriage'
281 of 457
When did Nero rule?
282 of 457
What image did he portray of himself?
Julio claudian look with bowl cut and nose but much chubbier to show Rome had plenty
283 of 457
How was he potrayed through physiognomy?
He was handsome but his body was blotchy and his legs very thin but stomach protruding so shos variability and corruptness underneath
284 of 457
While Augustus had many works, how were those by these Emperors?
Generally less an more sparse
285 of 457
Under Tiberius, what two pieces were produced?
-Valerius Maximus, -Valleius Paterculus
286 of 457
What was Valerius Maximus about?
Memorable Deeds and sayings- Gathers antiquarian information about the past
287 of 457
What was Valleius Paterculus about?
Compendium of Roman history- Run thrugh of history from Troy to Libya in 839BC
288 of 457
Under Caligula who wrote?
289 of 457
Under Claudius, who wrote and an example?
Claudius wrote himself and added 2 more letters to the latin alphabet but none survive,
290 of 457
Under Nero, what was there a Renaissance in?
291 of 457
What were his views on culture and writing?
He love it so many writers flcoked to the city to try and recreate Augustus' period,
292 of 457
What sorts of things did Seneca write?
Philosophy, epistles, tragedies
293 of 457
What is significant about Seneca and his tragedies?
They are the only surviving Latin tragedies from the whole of the Roman period
294 of 457
What are the tragedies about?
295 of 457
What di Lucan produce?
De Bellum Civile
296 of 457
What was De Bellum Civile and what was it about?
An epic on the Civil war of Caesar and Pompey
297 of 457
How did he try and be different with his work?
He tried to remove the Gods from being important to create a humanistic period,
298 of 457
How were Seneca's and Lucnas relationship with Nero?
They were both friends of Nero
299 of 457
However, what did Nero do and why?
he felt threatened by them as they were considered better poets, so he plotted against them but this failed, so thye were force to kill themselves
300 of 457
What did Persius produce under Nero?
Satires and 6 poems
301 of 457
What did Siculus produce and what was it about?
Eclogues about the countryside
302 of 457
What did Petronius produce?
303 of 457
What was the Satvricon and why is it important?
it is a novel which is the earliest surviving Latin novel
304 of 457
What is it about?
A man who gets cursed by the God Precapius to fail to get an erection and spends the rest of the novel finding a cure,
305 of 457
FOr art, what did statues of emperors represent?
A new movement of art goin forward
306 of 457
How can you tell what period it comes froM?
The haircut- Julio claudians all have the same features in sculptures to legitimise their rule
307 of 457
What cup was found from this period, and specifically from which ruler?
Warren cup, -From mid Tiberius period in the 30s
308 of 457
What was it meant to represent?
Certain imperial figures
309 of 457
What was on side A?
Beardless youth penetrating a slave boy
310 of 457
What was on side B?
Older bearded man penetrating an older youth above him or lowering himself with a strap
311 of 457
What was the questions about side B?
Who was in charge in B- Passive and active penetration? Is the strap common? is this a brothel scene? is the boy peeping in the scene meant to be us
312 of 457
Why could this be seen as an attack on who?
Attack on the imperial Julio Claudians due to likeness of features of the man being penetrated,
313 of 457
What could this cup be used for?
it was well carved for could be used to drink to amuse people
314 of 457
For the Flavian dynasty, how was Domitian presented by texts?
He is presented in a bad light
315 of 457
However, why should we question there sources?
As he reigned for 15 years so it seems unlikely that if he was detsted that much he would have lasted that long
316 of 457
Who built the colosseum from the Flavian dynasty?
Vaespasian and his son Titus finises it
317 of 457
What is its original name?
318 of 457
Who were the two important writers from Vespasian?
Pliny the Younger and Valerius Flaccus
319 of 457
What did Pliny the Younger write?
320 of 457
What was it about?
It tells us everything Rome is interested in such as magic, medicine-basically an encyclopaedia,
321 of 457
How much survived?
None of his historis survive
322 of 457
How did he die?
He went ot write about a volanic eruption but died,
323 of 457
What did Valerius Flaccus write?
Argonautica, an Epic
324 of 457
What is it about?
it is a latin version of Jason and the Argonauts
325 of 457
Under Domotian, give five famous writers?
-Statius, -Silius Italicus, -Quintillian, -Martial, -Plutarch
326 of 457
What three things does Statius write?
-Silvae, Achilleid, Thebaid- 2 epics
327 of 457
Which were the 2 epics and which of the two were unfinished?
Achilleid and Thebaid, -Achilleid- Only 3 books
328 of 457
What was silvae?
A small professioanl piece use for parties- small ad intricate little poems
329 of 457
What di Silius Italicus write about what?
Punica- The Punic wars
330 of 457
What did Quintillian write about what?
Institutio Oratoria- Writes about oratory and rhetoric in the period
331 of 457
What di martial write about what?
Epigrams- Aboutt he building for the Colosseum- Poet who is very sexual
332 of 457
What two works did Plutarch writer and about what?
parallel Lives and Moralia- He wrote about Greek and Roman heroes
333 of 457
For sources on the adoptive Emperors, which writers are both from this period? Does their histories cover tis period?
Both Tacitus and Suetonius but none of their histories go as far as this period,
334 of 457
Overall, what happens to material?
It starts to thin
335 of 457
What did Cassius Dio write about what?
Roman history from founding of Rome up to 229AD
336 of 457
Why was it biased?
Very bias towards the Severan dynasty as they were friends
337 of 457
Why is it unrelaiable alos?
It is based on gossip rather than real history
338 of 457
Who was the other writer?
Pliny the Younger
339 of 457
What two things did Pliny write?
340 of 457
FOr Epistles, what was he doing at the time from 110-112Ad?
he was governor of Bithynua, Northern Turkey
341 of 457
How much is surving from this?
10 books ofr letters surviving, including people such as Tacitus and Suetonius,
342 of 457
Why is book 10 most important?
AS it contains letters with Trajan and shows how much influence an Empror has in the legal running of a province
343 of 457
What was Paneavricus?
A speech in praise of the Emperor Trajan about how wonderfu he is and the adoptive system
344 of 457
Overall, what is this speech?
345 of 457
What book also covers this period
346 of 457
How much does this cover?
Lives of Emperor from Hadrian to Carinus
347 of 457
When was it written?
Around 395- it did claim to be written around 285 and 337
348 of 457
Who does it claim to be written by but who was it?
Claims to be written by 6 different people, hence the date differences, but actually written by 1 with the same style all the way though,
349 of 457
What are the reasons for why the author lied?
There are no reasons
350 of 457
Whose way of writing is imitated?
Suetonius, with focus on character, morals and virtues
351 of 457
is it reliable?
no there are issues with the text and quote happy to make things up, much is fictional and interested in gossip
352 of 457
What three walls did Hadrian build which remain today?
The Lime Britannicus, -Limes Germanicus, -Limes Tripolitanus
353 of 457
What di Hadrian do when he expanded?
He beautified the cities whereever he went in the empire uch as the decayed parts of Greece
354 of 457
What three things did he build in his building programme in Rome?
Temple of Venus, next to the Colosseum, Pantheon (rebuilt), and Hadrians Mausoleum which is now in Pope's Palace
355 of 457
What three things did he build in his building programme i nAthens?
Temple of Athenian Zeus, Library in Athens off the Roman agora, Arch dedicated to himself and Thesus
356 of 457
What boom was there in Hadrian's reign?
357 of 457
Who wer ethe Second Sophistic?
A bunch of orators and writers who woudl travel around the Empire trying to impress cities and the emperor with their brilliance,
358 of 457
What were all of hadrians successors like with the arts?
They were patrons of these kind og people and encouraged them to come to Rome and travel the Empire
359 of 457
What were Hadrian's views on Greek culture?
he loved it and wanted to spread it across Rome
360 of 457
What was his nickname?
361 of 457
What also grew during hadrian's reign based on art and imperial culture?
Artistic side of imperial culture grew
362 of 457
He was so keen on artwork what did he build outside of ROme where people built what?
He bult a palace outside of Rome where people built statues and art work representing various parts of the Empire- Keen on emphasising cultural aspects,
363 of 457
Who was successor after Hadrian?
364 of 457
What wall did he build in Britain which lasted how long?
The Antonine wall further North and lasted 20 years before the border returned to Hadrian's Wall
365 of 457
Who were the next successors?
Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus
366 of 457
How does the Historia Augusta present Lucius?
That is the only text to portray him badly in order to make Marcus look amazing
367 of 457
What coumn was built which was virtually the same as Trajan's column?
Column of Marcus Aurelius
368 of 457
What was the column about/ like?
Spiral about German tribes- It was violent and aggressive
369 of 457
Who was it built by?
His son Commodus
370 of 457
What did marcus declare himself the protector of aswhat did he beleive in?
Protector of Philosophy, -Believer in Stoic philosophy
371 of 457
How was marcus viewed by sources? What did it mark the end of?
Highly criticised by the sources and later historians- ENd of peaceful time,
372 of 457
For the Third Century Crisis, was was otium?
373 of 457
Was reading acceptable during leisure timE?
374 of 457
what did Seneca say about otium and reading?
"Otium without literature is death"
375 of 457
What texts were read out loud, even when alone?
376 of 457
When were books read?
At dinner parties, or at specially organised events at people/s houses or public spaces like the theatre
377 of 457
Who would they perform to?
A gathered crowd, usually their colleagues and friends
378 of 457
Give two examples of poets?
Juvenile and marshal
379 of 457
How was their poetry viewed?
Professional poets where other poets go to them saying their work is unlike other mundane poets
380 of 457
What was lower-class otium?
Tavernas or taverns- Sneered at by most sources
381 of 457
What as pub culture like in Rome?
Centres of sociability and conviviality ,
382 of 457
What sources are there for the Civil War? (3)
-historia Augusta, -Cassius Dio, -Herodian
383 of 457
What did Heodian write?
History of the empire from the Death of Marcu Aurelius to the Accession of Gordan II (238Ad)
384 of 457
When was it written?
385 of 457
What view did the book have?
No a senator so based on the public view which is interesting,
386 of 457
What does he usualy give a direct comparison to?
The historia augusta
387 of 457
In the Herodian, how many pages are there of the speech of pertinax trying to persude soldiers to not kill him and how does the Historia augusta describe it?
4/5 pages in Herodian, it doesn't go into the speech but describes it as long and serious in Historia augusta
388 of 457
Who was the wife of Septimus Severus and when did Severus rule?
Julia Domna -193-211
389 of 457
How did she view culture?
390 of 457
Who did she gather together?
Literary luminaries like Philopstratus
391 of 457
Which travellign orator group writing texts did she support?
392 of 457
What did they write for Julia?
Porpyhry- Life of Plotinus for Julia
393 of 457
Who was the next ruler?
Caracalla and Geta
394 of 457
After Caracalla killed Geta, what happened to his image?
Anything that mentioned him was removed. Statueswere removed and eliminated from art work
395 of 457
Give an example of this removal in the Damnatio Memoriae?
Septimus, Julia and Carcalla in a painting but Geta's face has been rubbed out and essentally erased from history
396 of 457
What happened to a poet in Egypt who wrote a satirical poem about him?
He was so annoyed by this he went ot Alexandria and when the locals came to greet him ,he allows his army to slaughter them and ****,
397 of 457
When was Elagabalus declared Emperor?
398 of 457
How is he viewed in all historical texts and why?
Negatively as he pays lavishly
399 of 457
Give an example of his lavish payings?
The Roses of Heliogabalus- he invited his friends to wa and after, he opened a canopy with Rose petals until his deaths choke to death,
400 of 457
Who was Emperor after?
401 of 457
How did the Historia Augusta protray him?
As a saint whereas Elagabalus depicted as weak and feminine and evil
402 of 457
For the christian Empire, who were in the first diocletianic ruling?
Diocletian, Maximan and their two junior emperors Galerius and Constantius
403 of 457
Whre was the famous statue that depicts these four emperors made?
404 of 457
What is the idea behind it?
Their embrace shows their conformity and unity with the same dress and same look alike- Spiritually linked to Rome
405 of 457
What does the style show about art and how?
Shows decline in art-Thy have stylised faces with no realism and no features- All look the same
406 of 457
How are the proportions?
They aren't great- Length of arm and disjointedness
407 of 457
Does this show a decline in people's abilitis?
no but a rejection of a style and embracing a new formant and style,
408 of 457
For pagan sources from Constantine to Julian, who wrote under Constantius II?
409 of 457
When did he write?
410 of 457
What did Victor write?
De Caesaribus which was a small seris of biographies where he tells us attitudes in the era to earlier emperors
411 of 457
Give an example with how hadrian is presented at the time?
he is presented negative- Before thi everything was positive, but Christian writers after show negativity such as homosexuality
412 of 457
Who was a teacher and wrote letters and speeches?
413 of 457
Who did he write under?
414 of 457
Who also wrote speeches and letters and autobiographies was a teacher?
415 of 457
Who does he teach under?
416 of 457
How is his relationship with the royal family?
he has connections with them
417 of 457
What did Julian writer?
Misopogon (the beat hater)
418 of 457
Who was Misopogon aimed at
Those attacking his policies out in the East such as the Caesars and Orations
419 of 457
Who wrote Brevarium under Valentinian and Valens?
420 of 457
Describe his work?
Short work with little detail
421 of 457
Who also wrote Brevarium under Valentinian and Valens?
422 of 457
Who wrote Poems and Speeches under Gratian?
423 of 457
how much is left?
Huge amount, incuding speeches to the emperor
424 of 457
What was his relatioship to the emperor?
he was a tutor to Gratian and so were close to the royal family
425 of 457
What three writers were under Theodosius?
Pacatus and Symmachus and Ammianius Marcellinus
426 of 457
What did Pacatus produce?
427 of 457
What did Symmachus produce?
Letters and speeches
428 of 457
What was the change in what was thought of Rome at the time reflect in works?
it was written at the time when ROme was no longer central and talked about Rome's lost glory days
429 of 457
What di Marcellinus write?
Res Gestae, laterhistory of Rome
430 of 457
Why was he the most important historian?
He was meant to continute the work of Tasitus,
431 of 457
how much survives?
The beginning works are lost,
432 of 457
What book covers this period too?
433 of 457
What were the three christian sources?
Eusbius, -Lactantius, -St. Jerome
434 of 457
What di Eusebius produce?
history of the Church, Life of Constantine the Great
435 of 457
Who was he under?
436 of 457
Through this work what can we see about Constantine?
We can see the changes he made e.g. at the beginning being friendy with the tetrarchs but at the end we see he knows he is the sole ruler,
437 of 457
What did Lactantius produce under who?
De Mortibus Persecutorum under Constantine I
438 of 457
What was thus?
439 of 457
What is the most important treaties and why?
'On the death of the persecutors'- Shows attitudes to the Emperors who were involved in the persecution
440 of 457
What di St Jerome produce?
Himilies, speeches, theological pamphlets, letters, latin Bible
441 of 457
Who was he under?
442 of 457
What idea does he give us about Rome?
he gives us idea about what rome was like in 14th centiry and relationship between emperor and priest
443 of 457
When was the fourth tetrachy under who?
308-310- Galerius, Licinius, Maximinius Daia and Constantine
444 of 457
For propoganda purposes what was placed for Licinis in Turkey?
A colossal statue head of Licinius
445 of 457
how did it portray him?
Muscular neck, rolls of fat,
446 of 457
Why do the coins show him to be on a larger side?
Attempting to look like a military man- Belief that in retirement thye would become fatter when muscle turned to far,
447 of 457
What is Licinus showing about the East?
There is abundance in the Eat- You can eat ad enjoy all you want in the East
448 of 457
For Constantine in the West, how do his statues present him?
Classicl look- Slender face, clean shavn civilian appearance, not military
449 of 457
Who has he connected himself to?
450 of 457
overall what art sttyle has he stuck with?
ealry 4th century appeal- Classic look
451 of 457
When was the Arch of Constantine built inf Rime and where?
AD315 in between the Colosseum and palestien Hill
452 of 457
What was the arch built from?
Used parts of buildings from different eras e/g/ Hadrians, Marcus Aurelius
453 of 457
Wat could be the reason for this?
he could be deliberatley trying to connect himself to good emperors or it is accidental,
454 of 457
Although what was common at the time and an example?
Art and statues were often re-wroked e.g. statue ogf nero where colosseum stood- Face reshaped to look like hadrian later
455 of 457
How was Julian the Apostate potrayed and why was this different?
With a beard- Before everyone was clean shaven or stubble
456 of 457
Who could he be trying to link back to and why?
Philosophers such as hadrian- Link back to the Golden age with Emperors who favour philosophy and knowledge
457 of 457
Other cards in this set
What two things did he build?
Circus maximus, -Cloaca maxima
What was the circus maximus?
What was the cloaca Maxima?
How many Kings were there?