Religion and Philisophy in Ancient Greece

  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 29-12-16 20:02
For the Mycenaeans, why could they have King worship?
AS 'Wanax', can mean divinity as well as King,
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For the Mycenaeans, what archeological findings suggest they could have worshipped their ancestors?
Grave Circle A and B, from 1600BC an 1500BC
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Who found these grave circles? When and where were they found?
-Heinrich Schliemann, -1871, -Mycenae
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How are the grave circles structure and organised?
It is a shaft grave, which is a hole in the ground where bodies were placed, with families on one level, with a wooden floor, and then another family so a generation of families,
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What about Grave Circle A particularly suggests that their may have worshipped their ancestors?
As in 1300BC, people decided to build a large stone wall- cyclopean walls- around the city, -Grave circle A important enough for the city wall to be built around the Grave to protect it,
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What was found in these graves to suggest worship?
Some grave goods survive to appease the Gods as well as scenes painted of sacrifices,
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Give an example of a sacrifice scene and when?
Agia Triada, -1350BC
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Who controlled the religious organisation of the Kingdom and an example of how?
The Palace, -Tablets list the gifts of land, animals, precious objects and human labour from the palace to the Gods to be used for maintenance of their sancturaries, and of the priest and priestesses,
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Give an example of a tablet and what was on it?
Pylos divinity tablet which has on it oil, gold cup, sheep, wheat, man
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Give some examples of known Gods they may have worshipped based on findings?
-Poseidon, God of Earth, -Zeus, Sky God, -Hermes, Merchant God, -Athena, -Di(w)onys, wine God,
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Give three examples of unknown Gods featured from findings?
-Diwia, Sea goddess, -Potnia, the lady, Qowiia, the Cow Goddess, Posidaeia, female form of Poseidon, -Potnia Iqeia, Lady of the Horses,
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In the Dark Ages, what was done instead of burial?
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As burials were less impressive to stand and watch, what was held with cremation?
Festivals were held around the cremation ceremony
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How were rulers dealt with when dead?
Rulers were burned then buried in urns- Grave goods still buried alongside them e.g. weaponry, jewellery, belongings,
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What was the major archaeological site found from the 9th century> When was it found?
Lefkandi, -1981
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What was found there?
Heron, a large narrow building with one grave with 3 horses which were sacrificed in it, the other has a cremated male and a buried female,
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What does this building have to do with ancestor worship?
Others believe that the building was built around the dead bodies as a place of worship and a focus point,
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However, what do others believe the building has to do with worship?
Some historians believe the building was built especially for the buried 'heroes'
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For the question of whether Lefkandi proves hero or ancestor worship, what proves its a hero worship based on Homer?
Homer has similar scenes of people worshipping the tombs of dead heroes,
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What two places were religious offering found and later who did they become sites or worship for?
Olympia and Samos, -They became sites of worship for Zeus and Hera
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Why was religion in this period a time of both continuity and change?
The names of six or seven of the later twelve "Olympian" Gods are found in the Linear B tablets although some of the names of the Gods whose names appear on the Linear B tablet disappeared,
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What remained the same in how they worshipped?
The manner of worship and placating the Gods through prayer, sacrifice and gifts remained much the same,
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However, what changed in places of worship?
However, it wasn't centred in palaces but diffused among villages and the history of the Gods up to the supremacy of Zeus,
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For the archaic period, where were other systems of religion gained their influence from?
Other continents like the East and West,
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How many Gods were there and how were they depicted?
40 beings, -They are seen as very aloof and are no means nice to their favourites e.g. people and cities,
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What two authors wrote about mythology and when?
Homer and Hesiod in 750BC
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What two things did Homer write about mythology?
-The Illiad, -The Odyssey
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What did Hesiod write about mythology?
The Theogony
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Who do they depict as the source of all these Gods, including her husband?
Gaia, Mother Earth,
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Who was her husband?
Ouranus, the Sky,
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Who is their youngest son, leader of who?
Kronos, leader of the Titans
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How did the Greeks view this incestuous aspect?
They generally accepted it and it was typical of mythology,
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Who is Kronos' wife and who does he produce in particular?
-Rea, -Zeus and his family,
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However, what does Kronos do to all the babies and why?
Kronos eats all of his babies due to conflict and rivalry, except Zeus who is hidden by Rea,
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What does Zeus do to help his family?
Zeus kills his father and his family are released from Kronos,
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What does Zeus set up after killing the Titans? What does this show a movement from and to in terms of constitutions?
He set up a Council of Gods, the Olympians, 12 Gods, -It was the first move from tyranny and absolute monarchy to democracy,
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What is Zeus' believed role?
King of the Gods,
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Who is Zeus' brother who is an Olympian God and what is his role?
Poseidon, -God of the Sea
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Who is Zeus' other brother who is no an Olympian God and why? What is his role?
Hades as he is God of the Underworld- While popular culture views him as a satanic figure, he is depicted as a friendly and good GOd,
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What is Hera's relations to the Gods and what is her role? How is she presented?
-Zeus' sister and wife, -Goddess of childbirth and marriage, -She is presented as strong and angry,
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Who is Zeus daughter? What is her role and why is she particularly significant?
Athena, -Goddess of wisdom, -An important figure of sexuality- She was born of man not of woman,
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Who was the only Greek God who also has the same name as the Roman God? What is his role?
Apollo, -God of Oracles
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Which God is the twin of Apollo? What is her roles?
-Artemis, -She has three different forms: Artemis- Goddess of hunting, Selene- Goddess of the moon, -Hecate- Witch-goddess
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Who is the God who conducts the souls to Hades? However, what is his primary role?
-Hermes, -Messenger of the GOds,
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Who is the Blacksmith God of metals?
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Which god is portrayed negatively in texts but he gives armies their strength?
Ares, the God of War,
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Who is another olympian goddess where there was debate among the Greeks on whether there were two versions?
Aphrodite, Goddess of love, -Some believe there were two versions, one of lust and one of love,
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What is another Goddess who is the sister of Zeus?
Demeter, Goddess of the Harvest
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Which Goddess is the goddess of the hearth?
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While those are the 12 Gods, which God isnt counted as an Olympian, but some people class him as one?
Dionysus, God of Wine
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Why isn't h counted as an Olympian for historians?
As he isn't mentioned in Homer,
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Why isn't he counted as an Olympian for Greeks?
As they believed he as an Eastern import,
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How are Gods presented in relation to humans?
The Gods look like humans, behave like humans, they change their minds alot but they look after people's lives and have certain areas to look after,
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What religious group was formed among the aristocracy?
Cults of the Gods,
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Why were the aristocracy the ones who formed the cults?
AS they were arguably the only ones who knew how to perform these cults,
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Soon how did the state get involved?
The state began to use money to pay for extravagant religious cults,
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However, give an example of a cult which stayed in the elite's hands?
Eleusis, the place where Demeter's daugther had been kidnapped by Hades, and it was there she showed humans how to cultivate crops, -Only two families were allowed to run this cult,
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However, for state cults, often certain cities had certain what in relation to Gods and examples?
They had certain deities who protected them, -Argos had Hera, -Olympia had Zeus,
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Where were festivals and rituals held?
They were held on the steps outside the house, -Temples were only used as houses of the Gods,
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Did people pray at home? Evidence?
Yes- Shrines were found in the home with deities, -Households would often have their favourite God who they worshipped for their own reasons,
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However, what happened to belief in the Gods in the 4th century?
Various philosophers began to question the existence of the Gods,
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how did this affect the public's view?
The public continues to believe in them,
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Were people allowed to believe in no religion?
No it was illegal and would lead to being punished as an atheist,
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However, how did the beliefs in Gods adapt?
People began believing in new Gods, many from Eastern oriental cults, such as Dionysus the God of wine,
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Who were arguably the God's word and prophecies on Earth?
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Which Oracle was always the first to be seen by colonising expeditions and when did it begin?
-Delphi Oracle, -8th century BC,
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What did the Delphi Oracle predict and when about Sparta? What was Athen's reaction?
430 BC, -They specifically told Sparta would win and the Athenians carried on worshipping them,
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Give some other examples of Oracles?
Dodona to Zeus in sacred Oak grove, -Apollo, -Didyma in the Asia minor,
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For the Classical period, what did Greek's of Hesoid's day believe about the universe and the emergence of our world?
They believed the earliest state of the Universe was in chaos- Out of the chaos, the order of their own world emerged- Kosmos,
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What was mythology's role in this cosmos idea?
it served the important function of grounding the growth of cosmos from chaos in various actions taken by the Gods,
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Give four famous Greek philsophers in this period?
-Socrates, -Plato, -Xenophon, -Aristotle,
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Where was Socrates born and when?
Athens in 469 BC
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Where does most information about Socrates come from and why?
It comes from Plato's dialogies and Aristophane's comedies as he never wrote down his philosophies,
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Why was Socrates executed in 399BC?
He was accused of not believing in Athens' God and creating his own God, and was forced to drink Hemlock,
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Who did Plato believe 'guided' him?
A divine voice,
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What was his role in society?
His dialogues are heard by many people to get them thinking, and allowing people to form their own conclusions on philosophy,
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What school of philosophy did Aristotle create and when in Athens?
-335, -Lyceum
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For revision cards on religion under Alexander the Great, see other set.
For revision cards on religion under Alexander the Great, see other set.
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For the Hellenistic period, how was Alexander viewed after his death?
He was viewed as a God,
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What is there a growth in, incuding Platonism?
Growth of philosophical schools,
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What happens to the Old religions and an example?
They still survive, -The foundation of the festival of Artemis Leucophyryene at Magnesia,
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Who was Platonism founded by?
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What school of philosophy did Aristotle found and what was it interested in primarily?
Peripateticism, -Interested in ethics, and a connection between aspects of life and creating a unifying theory,
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Who founded the Cynicism school of philosophy and who was he a follower of?
Antisthenes, -Follower of Socrates,
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What did this primarily believe in?
They believed life should be lived in relation with nature, and so all desires for power, wealth and possession should be ignored as well as anything material,
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What school of philosophy did Zeno found and what did they believe?
Stoicism, -They believed people should control their emotion and not let these get the beter of them,
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Which school of philosophy was founded by Epicurus and what did this believe?
-Epicureanism, -Believed the world was ruled by chance and having a simple life and accepting everything that happens was necessary to avoid sadness and pain,
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Who was Cyrenaicism founded by and what did it believe?
Aristippus, -He believed pleasure was important as well as immediate gratificaiton,
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Where did the Temple and Festival of Artemis begin?
In the Asia minor, in Magnesia,
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What Goddess, originated from Egypt, was particularly popular? What was she the Goddess of?
Isis- Egyptian Goddess of wives, mothers, fertility, Spring, magic, prostitutes, sailing,
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What is her influence/ following like?
She has a small ffollower group in Greece and a massive on in Rome due to all her encompassing features,
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What is the myth surrounding Isis/
Osiris, her husband, is killed by his brother and cut into pieces. Isis travels the world to collect his body pieces, often working to travel,
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Who is the Greek version of Osiris and what was his following like?
Serapis, -he was worshipped through secret initiations,
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Who are the other two new goddesses and what was their role?
Atargatis- Syrian fertility goddess, -Cybele- Mother goddess from Phrygia,
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What was the impact of these new Gods?
They had a limited impact but these were very popular in Dylos, which was the main slave trade area,
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In addition, how were the old Olympian Gods redefined?
Their power was redefined, for plainly their mission could no longer be conceived as defending greek interests against those of non-Greeks due to a wider influence,
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


For the Mycenaeans, what archeological findings suggest they could have worshipped their ancestors?


Grave Circle A and B, from 1600BC an 1500BC

Card 3


Who found these grave circles? When and where were they found?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How are the grave circles structure and organised?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What about Grave Circle A particularly suggests that their may have worshipped their ancestors?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


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