A2 PE - Section 2

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Why Do We Warm Up
• Physiological and physical benefits • Reduce risk of injury • Increase heart rate to get blood moving to working muscles • Improves muscle elasticity
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4 Stages Of A Warm Up
Stage 1: Initial Preparation, Gross Motor Skills and Pulse Raiser, Stage 2: Injury Prevention,Stage 3: Skill Practice, Stage 4: Sport Specific
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Static Stretching
Lack of movement, muscle taken to its current elastic limit and held in position for up to 30 seconds Very safe as you maintain control of movement
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Active Static
This is when you assume a position and then hold it, with no assistance
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Passive Static
Assume a position and hold it with some other part of your body, or with the assistance of a partner or some other apparatus
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Dynamic Stretching
Involves moving parts of your body and gradually increasing reach, speed of movement, or both It consists of controlled/slow leg and arm swings that take you gently to the limits of your ROM
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Ballistic Stretching
Uses the momentum of a moving body or a limb in an attempt to force it beyond its normal ROM This is stretching by bouncing into or out of a stretched position using the stretched muscles as a spring that pulls you out of the stretched position.
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PNF Stretching
a muscle is passively stretched, then contracts isometrically against resistance while in the stretched position and then is passively stretched again
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Periodisation
The athlete will set clear and specific objectives in the MACROCYCLE Objectives in a MESOCYCLE will be different but will fit into the overall macrocycle, The athlete will then also have objectives for each MICROCYCLE, which will fit into the mesocy
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ATP
• A chemical compound that is the energy source for all muscular efforts • Sources of ATP are: Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins • Created in the Mitochondria
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Breaking Down ATP
ATP ----> ADP + P
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Carbohydrates
• When digested, they are broken down to glucose and stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver • Glycogen can provide the energy for ATP production under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions
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Fat
• Major source of energy for long term activity • Is used to meet sub-maximal energy demands • During rest conditions, fat produces the majority of the required ATP
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Proteins
• Only minimally contributes to ATP production • Is only used in severe circumstances (marathon or starvation) when the body has severely depleted
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Energy From ATP
• ATP is stored in limited quantities in the muscle, so each muscle fibre must be able to create its own • For release of energy, one phosphate molecule breaks off, releasing energy and creating ADP • As long as there are sufficient energy substrate,
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ATP - PC Energy System
• Provides the bulk of ATP during explosive efforts • May be one off (jumping) or ongoing (100m sprint) • Lasts for about 10 seconds of maximal efforts
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Lactic Acid Energy System
• Provides energy in high intensity, sub maximal efforts • Muscle stores of glycogen are broken down to resynthesize ADP • Lasts from around 10 seconds up to 1 minute of exercise
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Aerobic Energy System
• Provides the bulk of energy for sub maximal efforts and recovery, contributes to all activities from 1 minute onwards • Fat becomes a significant contributor to ATP production, can operate for an unlimited work period
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EPOC
• The excess O2 consumed following exercise needed to provide the energy needed to resynthesize ATP used and to remove lactic acid created during previous exercise • EPOC has two components: Fast (Alactic) and Slow (Lactic)
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EPOC Fast Component
• Aim of the recovery process is to replace ATP and glycogen stores as soon as possible • The fast component lasts up to 4 minutes after exercise
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EPOC Slow Component
• Heat dissipation, energy replenishment, rehydration and removal of waste products are the main aims • This can take up to 48 hours after a performance
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Physiological Responses To Heat
• Reduced heart rate • Increased onset of sweat production • Increased sweat rate • Expanded plasma volume • Improved control of cardiovascular function • Body reduces the amount of sodium chloride (essential electrolytes) lost during sweating.
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Heat Syncope
• Occurs most commonly during the first 3-5 days of heat exposure • This is due to the vascular shunting of blood to the skin in order to cool down, and the consequent reduction in venous return and drop in cardiac output,
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Heat Exhaustion
• Defined as the inability to continue exercise in a hot environment
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VO2 Max
the maximum capacity of an individuals body to take in, transport and utilise oxygen, per minute, per kg of bodyweight
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Adaptation To Dry Heat
• In a drier heat, the body is better able to lose heat through sweating as the atmosphere will absorb the moisture better. • The danger then becomes one of dehydration, as the athlete may not realise how much they are sweating as the sweat evaporate
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Aerobic Training Adaptations
• Increase in stroke volume (lowers heart rate) • Increase in cardiac output • Increase in number of capillaries (more blood and oxygen sent to working muscles) • Increase in number and density of mitochondria (more ATP production)
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Anaerobic Training Adaptations
• Increase in PC stores (more to resynthesize ATP from ADP) • More anaerobic enzymes (to convert lactic acid into pyruvic acid) • Greater lactic acid tolerance (body utilises it better, body can buffer it more
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Stage 1: Initial Preparation, Gross Motor Skills and Pulse Raiser, Stage 2: Injury Prevention,Stage 3: Skill Practice, Stage 4: Sport Specific

Back

4 Stages Of A Warm Up

Card 3

Front

Lack of movement, muscle taken to its current elastic limit and held in position for up to 30 seconds Very safe as you maintain control of movement

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

This is when you assume a position and then hold it, with no assistance

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Assume a position and hold it with some other part of your body, or with the assistance of a partner or some other apparatus

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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