PE Paper 1 Flashcards

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What are the 3 types of receptors and what do they do?
Chemoreceptors- detect chemical changes in the blood e.g.CO2. Baroreceptors-detect stretching in artery walls due to changes in blood pressure. Proprioceptors- detect movement as they are located in muscles, tendons and joints.
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What are 2 factors that cardiac output relies upon?
1. venous return-as it increases so does SV. 2.elasticity of cardiac fibres- further heart can stretch during diastole phase the larger the ejection fraction will be.
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What are the effects of regular aerobic exercise on the heart?
Cardiac hypertrophy-muscle bigger and stronger. More blood pumped out per beat (SV). Lower heart rate as heart doesn't need to contract as much to pump the same amount of blood. Bradycardia-less O2 needed for contractions of heart as less of them.
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What is coronary heart disease caused by?
Build up of fatty deposits in coronary arteries resulting in full or partial blockage, can eventually lead to a heart attack when blood supply is fully cut off.
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What effect does regular aerobic exercise have on someone's general health?
Decreased likelihood of heart disease and high blood pressure. Reduces bad LDL cholesterol levels and increases HDL levels. Reduces likelihood of a stroke.
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What is cardiovascular drift?
Increase of heart rate in steady state exercise after around 10 minutes as there is a decrease in SV due to blood plasma lost while sweating so venous return decreases. HR increases to compensate to pump same vol of blood and maintain cardiac output.
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What is the definition of blood pressure and why is it given in a format where one number is over another number?
The force exerted by blood against blood vessel wall; blood flow x resistance. Systolic pressure is on top and diastolic pressure is on bottom. Typical reading= 120/80 mmHg.
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What are 6 things which aid venous return?
1. Skeletal muscle pump. 2. Respiratory pump. 3. Valves. 4. Smooth muscle in walls of veins. 5. Gravity. 6. Suction pump of the heart.
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What does oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve show, why might it shift to the right and what is this called?
The relationship between haemoglobin and oxygen. It shifts to the right during exercise as oxygen is needed at the working muscles so needs to dissociate more readily, this is called the Bohr Shift.
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What are the 3 factors responsible for the Bohr Shift?
1. Increase in blood temperature. 2. Increases pCO2 in blood. 3. Lower PH due to the CO2.
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What is the vascular shunt mechanism and why does it mean athletes shouldn't eat just before performing?
It is the redirection of blood flow to areas where it is needed the most. Blood shunts to stomach when you eat so less O2 is available for working muscles including the heart muscle.
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How is redistribution of blood controlled?
Chemoreceptors send impulse and stimulate vasomotor centre causing blood to be redistributed through vasoconstriction of vasodilation. Sympathetic nervous system causes vasoconstriction. Precapillary sphincters contract/relax to constrict/allow flow.
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Why is the redistribution of blood so important?
Regulates O2 supply to muscles, removes waste products, ensures blood flows to skin to regulate body temperature though sweating and directs blood to heart muscle.
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What is A- VO2 difference and what does it mean?
Difference in O2 content between artery blood going to muscles and venal blood leaving muscles. During exercise A-VO2 diff is higher as oxygen is needed for respiration. It shows how much O2 has been taken up and used by the muscle.
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What is minute ventilation and how is it calculated?
Volume of air breathed in or out per minute. Calculated: No. of breaths per min x tidal volume.
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Why does oxygen move from alveoli into the capillaries?
Oxygen had been removed from blood at working muscles so blood has low pO2 which alveoli have high pO2 meaning O2 moves down its conc. gradient until it reaches equilibrium.
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What 2 systems control pulmonary ventilation and what do they do?
Sympathetic-increases breathing rate. Parasympathetic- Lowers breathing rate.
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How is breathing rate increased?
Chemoreceptors detect increase in blood PH due to CO2 during exercise. This sends an impulse to inspiratory centre which sends impulses down the phrenic nerve to stimulate the inspiratory muscles.
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What do stretch receptors do?
Prevent over inflation of the lungs by sending impulses to expiratory centre, down the intercostal nerve to expiratory muscles so that expiration happens.
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What is the difference in the intercostal nerve and the phrenic nerve in controlling breathing?
Phrenic nerve impulses increase breathing rate. Intercostal nerve impulses increase expiration.
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What is myoglobin?
Iron containing protein in muscle cells which has a high affinity for O2 so it receives O2 from oxygen and transports it to mitochondria. It can store O2 until it is required.
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What are the characteristics of slow twitch (type 1) muscle fibres?
Slow contraction speed, small motor neurone, small force produced, less likely to fatigue, high mitochondrial density, high myoglobin content, high capillary density, high aerobic capacity, low anaerobic capacity, low glycolytic enzyme activity.
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What are the characteristics of fast twitch (type IIb) muscle fibres?
Fast contraction speed, large motor neurone, large force produced, low mitochondrial density, low myoglobin content, low capillary density, low aerobic capacity, high anaerobic capacity, high glycolytic enzyme activity.
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What is a motor unit?
What muscle fibres are grouped into, made up of muscle fibres and a motor neurone which ends in a neuromuscular junction. Vary in size depending on size of muscle and only contain one type of muscle fibre per motor unit.
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What is wave summation?
Repeated activation of motor neurone stimulating a muscle fibre. Each time impulse reaches muscle cell calcium is released, repeated stimulation without enough time to relax, ca+ will build in muscle cell, when contraction happens it is powerful.
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What do you call a forceful contraction due to wave summation?
Tetanic Contraction
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What is spatial summation?
When impulses are received at different parts of the neurone at the same time which add up neurotransmitter to fire an action potential. Recruitment of additional and bigger motor units within a muscle to develop ore force.
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What movements occur in the sagittal plane and transverse axis?
Hip flexion/extension, elbox flexion/extension, knee flexion/extension, hip hyperextension, ankle plantar/dorsi flexion, shoulder flexion/extension/hyper extension.
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What movements occur around sagittal axis and frontal plane?
Shoulder adduction/abduction, hip adduction/abduction.
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What are the 2 types of isotonic muscle contraction and what is the difference between them?
Concentric- when muscles shorten under tension eg. bicep in upwards phase of bicep curl. Eccentric- where muscle lengthens under tension acting as a brake to control a movement eg. quadricep on downward phase of squat.
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What is an isometric contraction?
Where the muscle doesn't shorten or lengthen when it contracts. It acts as a fixator or works against a resistance.
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How is energy released from ATP?
When the high energy bonds between the phosphate are broken by ATPase to produce adenosine diphosphate and Pi.
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What is beta oxidation?
When stored fat is broken down into glycerol and fatty acids which are then converted into acetyl coenzyme A which is the entry molecule to the krebs cycle so after this it follows same path at glucose metabolism. More ATP is made from fatty acids.
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How does the ATP-PC system work and what sports would it be used in?
PC in muscles is broken down into phosphate and creatine which releases energy. This energy is used to resynthesise ATP in a coupled reaction. For 1 molecule of PC, 1 molecule of ATP. High power and short burst so used in eg. weightlifting.
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What is a coupled reaction?
In a coupled reaction energy required by 1 process is supplied by another process.
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How does the lactate system work?
Glucose goes through glycolysis in the muscle cell sarcoplasm as O2 isn't available here, it produces 2 ATP. Pyruvate (product of glycolysis) broken down into attic acid by lactate hydrogenase. Provides energy for high intensity which lasts longer.
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At what duration does each energy system predominantly provide the energy
ATP-PC= less than 10 secs. ATP-PC and Anaerobic= 10-90 secs. Anaerobic and aerobic= 90 secs-3 mins. Aerobic= more than 3 mins.
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Why is there an oxygen deficit produced at the beginning of maximal and sub maximal exercise?
Circulatory system and mitochondria cannot physically meet the fast increase in demand when exercise starts so at first energy has to be provided anaerobically to satisfy until the circulatory system can cope.
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What are the 2 components of EPOC and what happens within them?
Fast component (3mins) ATP and PC stores restored, myoglobin is resaturated with O2. Slow component (over 1hour)- Removal of lactic acid, normalisation of HR and breathing, glycogen replenishment and maintenance of body temp.
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How is lactic acid removed during the slow component of EPOC?
1. O2 converts it back into pyruvate and it is oxidised into CO2 and H20. 2. Transported to liver and converted into glucose/glycogen (cori cycle). 3. Removed in sweat and urine. 4. Converted into protein.
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What are the 4 methods of measuring energy expenditure?
1. Indirect Calorimetry-Measures gas exchange at rest + during exercise. 2.Lactate Sampling-Blood ***** to measure lactate at intervals. 3.VO2 Max-Vol+conc of O2 expired vs atmosphere O2. 4.Respiratory Exchange Ratio-CO2 produced vs O2 consumed.
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What can the Respiratory Exchange Ratio be used to work out?
What fuel is being used to provide energy for the exercise eg. carbs/fat/protein.
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Why do athletes do altitude training?
Develops a high aerobic capacity as you train where there is a low pO2 in the air. Disadvantages; loss of fitness at first/ altitude sickness/ short term benefits/ home sickness.
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What is plyometric training and what are the 3 phases?
Explosive movements to increase anaerobic capacity where the eccentric contraction stored energy for concentric contraction. 1.Eccentric phase. 2.Amortisation (between contractions). 3.Concentric contraction.
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What is SAQ training?
Speed, agility, quickness. Agility training for games players which aims to engage the neuromuscular system to improve agility.
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How can a coach ensure positive transfer?
Make sure training is realistic. Make sure one skill is well learned before moving on to another. Reward and reinforce athletes for correct use of positive transfer-praise for similar actions.
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How does mental practice for beginners differ from mental practice for experts?
Beginners= short+key parts emphasised to lower arousal and anxiety to build confidence, reduce errors and improve motivation. Experts=whole session should be devoted to preparation of performance, looking at specific tactics + opponents weaknesses.
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What are 6 possible causes of the learning plateau?
1. Lack of motivation. 2. Boredom. 3. Coach. 4. Limit of ability. 5. Target set too low. 6. Fatigue.
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What are 7 possible solutions to the learning plateau?
1.New coach. 2.Rest. 3.Coach give praise for motivation. 4.Variety to avoid boredom. 5.Explain plateau to athlete so they don't blame themselves. 6.New goals. 7.Coach feedback on how to improve.
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What are the 4 types of guidance and who and what are they used for?
1.Visual-cognative to help create mental image. 2.Verbal-feedback; basic for cognitive, complex for autonomous. 3. Manual- physical help; cognitive/associative. 4. Mechanical- cognitive eg. armbands. Associative/autonomous after injury.
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What is operant conditioning (Skinner)?
Where you manipulate the environment to shape behaviour. When athlete is rewarded for correct action it is more likely to be repeated (positive reinforcement). Behaviourist-connects stimulus to response (S-R bond). Based on trial and error.
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What is observational learning (Bandura)?
Behaviour can be learned by watching + copying others. 1.Attention-make sure athlete takes note of cues (make demo clear). 2.Retention-athlete can recall demo in memory. 3.Motor Production-athlete can physically do it. 4.Motivation-drive to copy demo
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What is the social development theory (Vygostky)?
More knowledgable others influence young people's learning; inter psychological learning. After given advice athletes think and learn themselves; intra psychological learning.
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What is constructivism (Vygostky)?
Built on to social development theory-during intra psychological learning athletes assess their zone of proximal development by thinking 'what can I do?' 'what can I do with help?' 'what can't i do yet?' to work out what to do to learn a skill.
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What is insight learning (Gestaltist)?
Concentrating on the whole rather than the parts. Athletes use existing knowledge to solve problems. Use in realistic situations closely liked to game-provides self satisfaction. Not trial and error!
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What similarities still exist between Wenlock Olympian games of 1850 and todays Olympics?
Sports; football, running, hurdles and cycling. Opening ceremony with flag bearers, officials and competitors.
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How did urbanisation contribute to the development of sport?
1.Lack of space led to specialist facilities. 2.Large WC populations in need of entertainment. 3.Loss of traditional sports caused people to look for new ones. 4.Working hours/conditions improved so people had time and health to play.
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What affect did the emergence of the middle class have on the development of sport?
1.Codification-development of NGBs. 2.Competition-NGBs/schools/clubs/churches/factory teams. 3.Public provision-facilities and factory acts. 4.Leisure time-gave Saturday afternoons off for sport. 5.Professionalism-factory owners=patrons.
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What are the 5 receptor systems and what do they pick up?
1.Sight-position of opponent. 2.Auditory-refs whistle. 3.Touch-grip on ball. 4.Balance-foot stance. 5.Kinaesthesis- body position during tumble turn in swimming.
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What is selective attention, how is developed and what benefits does it have?
Filtering process to identify info needed by performer. Developed: stimulus enhanced/training with distractions/improved motivation/mental rehearsal. Benefits: improved reaction time/improved chances of making right decision/limiting info input.
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What does DCR stand for and what does it mean?
Detection, comparison, recognition. Performer picks up relevant info, tries to match info to info in memory, identify correct response and put it into action. It is the perceptual stage of info processing.
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What does the translator mechanism do in whitings info processing model?
Converts info so decisions are made. Filtered info sent to brain for comparison. Uses past experiences to link received info so similar actions can be selected and used.
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What are the 9 stages of whitings memory model when action is performed?
1.Environment.2.Display info eg.crowd.3.Receptor systems.4. Perceptual mechanism-selective attention.5.Translatory mechanisms-correct motor programme.6.Effector mechanism-impulse to muscles.7.Muscles contract.8.Output-response.9.Feedback on outcome.
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What are the components of the Badderly and Hitch working memory model?
Central Executive. Phonological loop. Visuospatial Sketchpad. Episodic buffer.
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What does the central executive do?
Has control over all information which enters and leaves the working memory. Quickly works out what information should be sent to one of its sub-memory systems.
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What does the Phonological Loop do?
Processes auditory info presented by senses. Phonological store and articulatory system which produces memory trace. Memory trace is sent to LTM where it triggers motor programme to produce movement.
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What does the Visuospatial Sketchpad do?
Concerns visual and spatial info. Holds info about what we see and is divided into 2 sections; visual cache (form and colour) and inner scribe (spatial and movement info). Suggests info about actions which can be acted upon.
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What dos the Episodic buffer do?
Co-ordinates the work of the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad into sequences of sight, sound and movement which can be sent to LTM. Sequences produce patterns of skilled actions which are the starting point for motor programmes.
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How do the working memory and the long term memory work in a two way process?
The working memory produces a memory trace and sends it to the LTM. The LTM then sends info back to the working memory for use in the current sporting situation.
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What factors have helped the development of elite female performers?
Equal opportunities. Increased media coverage of woman sports. Female role models in sport (performers/coaches/officials). Provision via PE. Encouragement from NGBs. More clubs formed. Funding. More free time (no traditional roles).
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What are the key features of lawn tennis?
MC invention. Specialist equipment used (wingfield kit). Standardised rules-wingfield kit also contained rule book. Mixed gender-'social game'. Public provision-eventually spread to WC through parks.
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What is the golden triangle?
Each point had either; business, sport or media. To show that they are all strongly interlinked and they rely on each other so if one was removed the others would struggle.
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What are characteristics of commercialised sport?
Professional (high quality). Sponsorship and business. Entertainment. Contracts-with companies i.e. merchandising. Athletes as commodities to bring increased sales ect. Wide media coverage.
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What effects does commercialisation have on the performers?
Receive high income. Sport is their life. Paid for success so high importance on winning. Can be pressure to perform when injured. Become celebrities. Controlled by sponsor. Invasion of privacy.
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What effects does commercialisation have on sport itself?
Rules+timings have been changed to make it less boring. Breaks for advertisements. Competition formats changes eg. twenty20 cricket. Minority/women sports receive less coverage. Technology=more personalised experience.
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How has TV broadcasting of football developed?
1937-first ever game Arsenal vs Arsenal Reserves. 1946-first ever live match. 1964-Match of the day. 1966- first widespread international coverage of world cup-England won which increased viewing. Today all live matches are televised (premier league)
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What effect has social media had on sport?
Sport news given on twitter/facebook. People can follow their role models on social media. Social media often used to promote sponsors. Allows fan bases to be built up Ronaldo=8million. Rio Ferdinand fined and suspended due to tweet in 2014.
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What is social control?
The way peoples thoughts, behaviour and appearances are regulated in society. Family/education/husband may control how woman thinks causing her not to play sport.
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What is social change?
When society readjusts it's views to meet new ideas. Eg. leisure centres providing creche facilities so woman can exercise while their child is looked after. 'This girl can' 'cricket for change' 'kick racism out'.
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What is social stratification?
Division of society into levels based on a 'social characteristic' eg. wealth or status. Those on the top have more access to resources than those on the bottom.
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What do muscle spindles do in PNF?
They provide info to the CNS on how fast and far a muscle is being stretched and the CNS sends impulse back telling muscle to contract=stretch reflex causing muscle to contract to prevent over stretching.
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What do golgi tendon organs to in PNf?
They detect levels of tension is the muscle which is contracted isometrically and send inhibitory signals to the brain which allow the antagonist to relax and lengthen-autogenic inhibition.
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What is hicks law?
The more stimuli you are presented with the slower your reaction time will be.
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What is simple/choice reaction time?
Simple=when there is only one type of stimulus that you only respond to with one type of response. Choice=where there are multiple stimuli presented and they all require a different response.
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What is the single channel hypothesis?
Only one stimuli can be processed at a time, a second stimulus has to wait until the firs has been processed.
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What is the psychological refractory period?
The confusion caused by the arrival of a second stimulus when the first isn't finished being processed yet-can cause athlete to freeze.
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What equasion can be used to describe newtons 2nd law of motion?
force= mass X acceleration.
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What are 2 factors that cardiac output relies upon?


1. venous return-as it increases so does SV. 2.elasticity of cardiac fibres- further heart can stretch during diastole phase the larger the ejection fraction will be.

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What are the effects of regular aerobic exercise on the heart?


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Card 4


What is coronary heart disease caused by?


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Card 5


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