5.2.1 CLONING IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS

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What is cloning?
process of producing genetically identical cells or organisms from the cells of an existing organism
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Where does cloning occur
naturally in some plants, also done artificially
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Outline reproductive artificial cloning
used to make complete organisms that are genetically identical to another organism
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Where is reproductive cloning used?
scientists to produce animals for research/ used to save endangered species/ farmer to increase n of individuals with desirable characteristics
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Outline non-reproductive cloning
used to make embryonic stem cells that are genetically identical to another species'/ harvested from young embryos/ potential to differentiate into any type of cell
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What are the uses of non-reproductive cloning?
used to replace damaged tissue cells in a range of diseases i.e. diabetes / replacement tissue can be genetically identical to patients own cells to reduce risk of rejection
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Outline natural clones in plants, use elm trees as an example
trees produce clones from structures called structures/ shoots that grow from shallow roots/ grow from sucker buds that are usually dormant/ during times of tress sucker buds become active/ metres away to help avoid stress and competition
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When are tissue cultures used?
clone plants that don't readily reproduce, are endangered or rare/used to grow plants from genetically engineered plant cells
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What is micropropagation?
tissue culture is used to produce lots of cloned plants quickly/ cells taken from developing cloned plants and subcultured/ repeating this process created large umbers of clones
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What are the pros of cloning plants?
desirable characteristics always passed on which doesn't always happen when plants reproduce asexually/ can be reproduced in any season as indoors/ sterile plants can be reproduced/ plants take a long time to reproduce seeds can be reproduced quickly
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What are the cons of cloning plants?
undesirable characteristics passed on/ no genetic variability, single disease could wipe out entire population/ production cost very high due to high energy use and training skilled workers
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Outline nuclear transfer in the cloning of animals
...
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What are the pros of cloning animals?
desirable characteristics always passed on, doesn't happen is sexual due to crossing over/ infertile animals can be reproduces - prize winning animals/ farmers do not have to wait until breeding season
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What are the cons of cloning animals?
undesirable characteristics passed on/ reproductive cloning is very difficult and time consuming/ expensive/ some studies show cloned animals don't live as long/ if animal is bred with another with similar features - generations can lead to inbreedin
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What are the consequences of inbreeding?
genetic faults
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where does cloning occur

Back

naturally in some plants, also done artificially

Card 3

Front

Outline reproductive artificial cloning

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where is reproductive cloning used?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Outline non-reproductive cloning

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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