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Reproductive cloning Non-reproductive cloning
· Involves the production of a · Involves the production of a
whole genetically identical genetically identical cells
animal which are not used to produce
· Fussion of a body cell with an a whole organism, also calleld
enucleated egg. Then divides therapeutic cloning
by mitosis like a normal · Embryonic stem cells are
zygote harvested from young embryos
· Can be used to test new drugs · Have the potential to become
· Save endangered animals any cell type
· Increase number of organisms · Means tissue wont be rejected
with desired characteristics by hosts immune system as
they're genetically identical.…read more

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vegetative propagation in elm trees
· A sucker is a shoot that grows from shallow roots of and elm tree
1)
· Suckers grow from undeveloped shoots (sucker buds) that are
scattered around the trees root system
2) · The buds are normally dormant
· During times of drought, damage or disease or when a tree is dying,
the buds are activated and suckers begin to form
3)
· Suckers can pop up many metres from the parent tree, allowing them
to avoid the stress that triggered growth
4)
· They eventually form separate trees, clones of the parent tree
5)…read more

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production of artificial clones of plants from tissue
culture
· Can be used to
1)
Cells that can divide by mitosis are Meristematic cells and clone rare plants
these are taken from the stem and tip because they can that don't readily
differentiate into any type of cell. The taken cells are an
explant reproduce
· Grows whole
2) plants from
The explants are sterilised to kill any microorganisms that
will compete for nutrients and decrease the growth rate of
genetically
the plant cells engineered plants
· Can produce a
3)
large number of
The explants are placed in a culture medium containing clones relatively
glucose for respiration and auxin and cytokinin which
stimulate cell growth and division quickly
4) The explants grow and produce a callus, these are placed
in sterile agar jelly containing substances that stimulate
shoot and root growth
5)
When the plants are large enough, they are transplanted
into sterile soil…read more

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advantages and disadvantages of plant
cloning in agriculture
Advantages Disadvantages
Desirable genetic characteristics Undesirable characteristics are
are always passed on always passed on
Plants can reproduce in any Cloned plants have no genetic
season because tissue culture is variation so a ingle disease
carried out indoors would kill them all
Sterile plants can be reproduced Production costs are high due to
high energy costs and training of
skilled workers
Plants that take a long time to
produce seeds can be
reproduced quickly…read more

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clones of animals
A body cell is taken from sheep A and the
nucleus is extracted and kept
The egg cell is taken from sheep B and the
nucleus is remove to form an enucleated egg
The nucleus from A is inserted into the
enucleated egg so it contains genetic
information from A
No
ve
n-re
cti pr
du od
Egg cell is stimulated to divide and an embryo is pro uc
Re ti ve
formed
Embryo implanted
Stem cells
Reproductive- embryo in surrogate
mother harvested
implanted into surrogate Non-reproductive-
mother and genetically genetically identical
identical lamb, to A, is embryonic cells are
born harvested…read more

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