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F215-Module 2-Biotechnology and Gene Technologies

5.2.1-Cloning in Plants and Animals
a. Outline the differences between reproductive and non-reproductive cloning

Reproductive cloning Non-reproductive cloning
Making cloned animals using eggs Using cloned cells to generate
and sperm. cells, tissues and organs to replace
Splitting embryos to make those damaged.
artificial identical twins.…

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o After a few weeks, single callus cells are removed from the mass and
placed on a growing medium containing plant hormones to encourage
shoot growth.
o After another few weeks, the shoots are transferred onto a different
growing medium containing different hormone concentrations that
encourage root growth.
o The…

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o An egg (ovum) that is haploid is taken from another adult and the nucleus
is removed making an enucleated cell.

o Using electro-fusion the nucleus is removed from the differentiated cell
and placed into the enucleated ovum.

o The cell is then placed into the uterus of another sheep.…

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Bacteria prevent the growth of other bacteria that would cause

o Mycoprotein

Quorn/meat alternatives.

Fusarium is grown in culture.

Fungal mycelium is produced and separated which is to be
processed as a food.

o Naturally brewed soya sauce

Roasted soya beans are fermented with yeast or fungi like

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E.g. Fusarium is grown on corn steep liquor which is a waste
product of the corn milling industry.

Why use microorganisms?

o They grow rapidly in favourable conditions, with them being able to
double in as little as 30 minutes (generation time).

o Can produce proteins and chemicals which are…

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Lag phase

o The organisms may be taking in water, undergoing cell expansion,
activating specific genes and synthesising specific enzymes.

Log phase

o Sometimes known as the exponential phase.

o Population size increases each generation.

o There is enough space and nutrients to reproduce.

o Low amount of limiting factors.…

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o The enzyme binds to it because of the hydrophobic interactions and ionic

o Adsorbing agents: porous carbon, glass beads, clays and resins.

o Enzymes can become detached because the bonding forces are not
strong (leakages).

o But if the enzyme molecules are held so their active site is…

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Immobilised enzymes are more stable because the immobilising matrix protects
the enzyme molecules.

f. Compare and contrast the processes of continuous and batch cultures

Continuous culture Batch culture

Higher growth rate because the Growth rate is slower because the
process is continuing and nutrients nutrient level decreases with time

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Oxygen concentration

o A lack of oxygen could lead to unwanted products of anaerobic
respiration and can reduce the growth rate.


o A change in pH can lead to the reduction of enzyme activity and
therefore reduce growth rates.

i. Explain the importance of asepsis in the manipulation of…

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Comparing genes of different species can show evolutionary relationships. This
is because the more DNA sequences that they share, the closer related they

Comparing genes for the same or similar proteins across a range of organisms is
known as comparative gene mapping.

You can model the effect of changes…


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