• 'Using clever, but often dishonest methods that decieve people so you can win power or control'. Deception is for the 'common good'

Virtue and Politics

  • Emphasised glory
  • Good men can sometimes lead to bad regimes
  • Virtu = qualities that enable man to master fortuna


  • Emphasised empiricism and realism. 'Real truth of the matter than imagination of it'.
  • Starting from facts. and The end justifies the means
  • Well-being + security of state outweighs other considerations
  • 'Fiat Justifia, pereat mundus' ... = 'Let justice be done, even if the world would perish'.
  • Machiavelli was a consequentialist

Prince: Vices and Virtues

  • To be liberal, merciful, truthful
  • Prasieworthy to act like this BUT may make you fail at being a ruler

Learning 'not to be good'

  • 'Use that knowledge, or refrain from using it, as necessity requires'.
  • 'Any man who is good all the time is bound to come to ruin'
  • A prince who wants to keep his authority must learn not to be good.

Virtu: The Lion and the Fox

  • Cicero: Wrong may be done by force or by fraud. Both these ways are bestial (Not actions of real man)
  • Force - Typifies Lion and Fraud - Typifies Fox
  • Two ways of acting - Prince must resort to 2nd and…


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