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  • Created by: izzy
  • Created on: 12-06-13 19:52

The concept of hardiness was introduced by Kobasa (1979) who was interested in factors that might protect of buffer people against the effects of stress. There are three basic elements to hardiness:

  • control: this is the idea that you can influence events in your life, including stressors
  • commitment: this is the individuals sense of involvement and purpose in life
  • challenge: this refers to the idea that changes in life should be viewed as an opportunity rather than a source of stress

Kobasa devised questionnaires to assess control, commitment and challenge,


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