England c.1603 Revision:
Role of the King - to make laws and ordinances, start and end wars, setting of budgets, choosing chief officers and magistrates, the administration of justice.
Role of the Church - form of control and communication. Teaching of deference, obedience to authority and loyalty to the monarch; protecting the social and political hierarchy.
Role of Parliament - to pass Statute Laws to add to the Common Law; able to grant or deny taxes; could petition the King.
Role of the Privy Council - advise the King and supervise the government, as well as local government.
Religious reformations c.1500-1599:
1517 - publication of Luther’s “95 thesis” called on purifying the church belief that the Bible, not tradition, should be the sole source of spiritual authority. This was due to the fat that in the same year, Johann Tetzel visited Wittenberg, offering indulgences with the Pope’s permission. Luther argued in his “95 thesis” that indulgences were a fraud and the Pope had betrayed Christ.
1520 - Pope excommunicated Luther - but this only inflamed the opposition to the Pope. Luther was skillful at using the new invention - the printing press - to quickly spread his views around Europe. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw. Frederick the Wise of Wittenberg had luther kidnapped for his own safety, and in three months Luther managed to translate the whole of the New Testament into German, so that everyday people could read it.
1524 - German peasants revolted. Aristocrats, supported by Luther, crushed the revolt, killing 100,000.
1530 - Augsburg Confession written by Philip Melanchthon, explaining Luther’s beliefs. It was written because the Emperor Charles V summoned the protestant princes - the Emperor said he would use force to bring the princes into the Catholic church. The next 20 years were uneasy and hostile, with back and forth wars - until the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, where it was decided that the prince could decide the religion of his territory.
Catholic and Protestant Beliefs:
Get to heaven through good deeds or the ceremonies of church
Get to heaven only through God and…