Richard III Revision notes

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Britain, 1483-1529 Revision
The end of the Yorkist monarchy
The Yorkist monarchy at the time of Edward IV's death ­ 1483:
Edwards reign was mostly successful as he restored peace after a disordered
period.
His marriage to Elizabeth Woodville caused political and family issues:
I. As Elizabeth was a commoner from a family fueled by climbing the social
ladder.
II. It made traditional Yorkists angry and humiliated them (Gloucester,
Hastings, Buckingham and Warwick)
III. Created enemies for Edward
IV. Elizabeth was also previously married to a Lancastrian
Sudden death results in an intense Yorkist family feud ­ restarts the Wars of the
Roses. It also meant that his heir was left to his son, who was in his minority.
There was a lot of confusion after Edwards death as he had left 2 wills; the 1st one
stating that his wife Elizabeth was to be one of the eight counsellors chosen to rule
for the king in cause of minority.
The second will, which was amended a few days before his death, is believed to
have stated that Edward had removed his wife's name from the will and left Richard
in charge of protecting his son and appointed him to rule. This lead to a power
struggle between the competing fractions; Woodville and Gloucester as they
each feared about political exclusion and ruin.
Once Edward IV died it was a rush of competition to see who could get hold of the
next in line, Edward v as who ever had control over him, had control over the
kingdom.

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Richard III
Edward VI's Usurpation by Richard III:
Edward IV's son become the next in line for the throne and was under the protector
ship of Richard, his uncle. However Richard seized the throne for himself and made
parliament proclaim him King Richard III
1st of May: Edward V was living near Wales with his Uncle Rivers (A Woodville), and
on their way to London they met up with Gloucester (Richard), who arrested Rivers
(held until execution.…read more

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Buckingham Rebellion ­ 1483:
Opposition against Richard grew in the South.
Series of household rebellions by Yorkists who were loyal to King Edward IV and his
sons.
South- East rebellions spread but where contained by the Duke of Norfolk.
But by October 18th more rebel armies had formed in the South-West and another
gathered in the central ­ south.
Buckingham close friend of Henry's;
I. Felt unsatisfied with his rewards when Richard became king (Greedy)
II.…read more

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Richard called parliament once (delayed by the Buckingham rebellion). It passed
some minor acts but nothing of lasting significance as Richard's attention was drawn
to foreign policy and family tragedy with the deaths of his son, Edward, in 1484 and
his wife Anne in 1485.
Richard chose to continue Edward's war against Scotland despite James III's desire
for peace.…read more

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Sir William Stanley came to Henry's aid, however historian David Hipshon
suggested that it was to seek revenge on Richard's right hand man ­ Harrington
as there had been a long feud between the two families.
Philip Edwards ­ "Henry Tudor's chance came with the division of the Yorkists
caused by Richard III's usurpation of the throne in 1483"
Richard III's downfall ­ His fault:
Isolated himself ­ from powerful nobles:
I. Had less support and more enemies, especially after the 97 attainders.…read more

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