Biotechnology & cloning F215

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  • Created by: devona
  • Created on: 11-05-13 19:20


clones- are exact copies (genetically) of an organism.

Asexual reproduction is how plants repoduce by mitosis.


.its quick (repoduce rapidly)

.can happen is sexual reproduction fail


. no genetic variation vunerable to disease could wipe out entire organism.

Natural vegetative propagation: production of structure in an organism that can grow into new individual organisms.

Example  English Elm's tree

Produce root sucker or basal sprouts after disease or burning of parent tree. the root suckers grow from meristem tissue in the trunk close tot he ground (less damage), the new tree is genetically the same as parent tree.

Artifical cloning of plants by tissue culture

taking cuttings:a section of stem (nodes) sometime treated with growth hormone (auxin) and planted which produces genetically ideantical plant to parent plant. 

*grafting; a section from shoot of woody plant joined with already growing root and stem. graft genetically identical as parent plant other parts non identical.

The process:

1.Small piece of tissue (cells) taken from shoot tip of originl plant (explant) contain stem cells.

2.cells are sterilised which kills any bacteria or organims that might compete with plant cells for nutrients.

3.placed into culture medium containg plant nutrients(glucose)  

4. when cells divide nd grow into small plant they are taken from medium and placed in soil


. able to reprouce plant every seasons don't have to wait for reproductive season

. can reproduce plants very quickly on large scale production- micropropagation

. can be used if plants are sterile 

. desirable characteristics or genes are passed down to offspring such s high fruit production


.no genetic variation which leave the plant vunerable e.g. single disease could wipe out who plant population

.expensive to train skill workers 

Animal cloning 

totipotent stem cells - capable of differentiating into any type of adult cell in the body

two ways:

splitting embryo- cells from developing embryo are separated out and go on to develop genetically identical organism. 

Nuclear transfer (Dolly cute sheep)

story mode:

Daisy(desired characteristics) the sheep's nucleus is kept which was taken


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