Zodiac Man

  • The zodiac man had every part of his body inked with an astroligical sign. 
  • Detail that each part of the body was affected by planets and stars.
  • Surgeons wouldn't open up patients or bleed in certain areas depending on planets and stars. 
  • Also thought that the planets and stars caused diesase eg. black death.
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Zodiac Man

  • had each part of his body inked with an astroligcal sign
  • was believed to be linked to the heavens
  • detail on each part of the body was linked to the planets and stars
  • surgeons wouldn't open up patients or bleed them depending on the planets and stars
  • also believed to cause disease eg. the black death
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Andreas Vesalius

  • studies skeletons and bodies
  • wrote a book called Fabric of the Human Body in 1543
  • proved Galen wrong - jaw is made up of 1 bone not 2
  • showed that blood did not pass through holes in the septum in the heart
  • caused Galen to be questioned
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Ambroise Pare

  • was an army surgeo
  • by chance found that a roman treatment worked better than oil on a wound - worked better for healing wounds and was less painful
  • also came up with ligatures to bandage a stump of amputated limb for healing instead of a red hot iron
  • however this method sometimes increased chances of infection
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William Harvey

  • doctor to the King - studied at Cambridge and Padua
  • wrote an account on the motion of the heart and the blood 1628
  • proved Galen wrong - blood flows away from the heart in arteries and returns to the heart in the veins - the heart acted as a pump for the blood and didn't burn it
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Louis Pasteur

  • scientist not a doctor
  • brewing company asked him to find out why beer goes bad
  • discovered germs caused things to go bad
  • came up with the idea of heating to kill them - pasteurisation
  • proved spontantaneous generation wrong - THE GERM THEORY
  • publishes germ theory 1861
  • however doesn't make the link between germs and human disease
  • comes up with vaccinations for chicken cholera
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Robert Koch

  • made link between germs and human disease
  • discovers specific bacteria causes specific disease eg. TB, typhoid and cholera 1875
  • goes into competition with Pastuer
  • observation, he repeated and recorded
  • government funding
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William Rontgen

  • german scientist 
  • 1895 discovered mysterious rays passed through everything except bone and metal
  • immediate impact - x-ray machines installed in hospitals within 6 months of the discovery
  • great importance in WW1 - x-raying for shrapnel and bullets
  • scanning techniques were then developed: CAT scans, PET scans, MRI scans and Ultrasound scans
  • this knowledge imporved accuracy of surgery
  • links with microsurgery and keyhole surgery and shows rapid development in knowledge leading to improved health
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Watson and Crick

  • 2 cambridge scientists
  • proved that DNA was present in every cell of the body - DID NOT disover it 1953
  • proved it passes information on from one generation to the next
  • removed fear that some diseases eg. cancer were passed by a virus
  • led to gene therapy, genetic screening and genetic engineering
  • 1990 Human Genome Project
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Anthony van Leeuwenhoek

  • made the first ever basic microscope 1677
  • had only one lens and the image was distorted and fuzzy
  • found tiny creatures moving about in nearly everything - called them animalcules which later became known as germs
  • published his findings in a series of 200 papers to the Royal Society of London
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Joseph Lister

  • developed a microscope which magnified 1000x without distortion
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Lady Montague

  • a method of innoculation was giving people a mild dose of smallpox to protect them from the full force of a severe attack
  • she observed it in Turkey as the idea gradually spread through Asia
  • 1721 she had her children innoculated - all survived the next smallpox epidemic
  • made buisness from it and made a lot of money
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Edward Jenner

  • doctor in Gloucestershire
  • discovered dairymaids who often caught cowpox seemed less likely to catch smallpox than other people
  • carried out an experiment on an 8 year old boy 
  • after 7 days the boy complained of feeling unwell butsoon felt healthy again
  • he was then innoculated with smallpox but no disease followed
  • repeated this on different people 25 times
  • submitted his findings to the Royal Society for publication in 1798
  • called his technique 'vaccination'
  • by 1803 doctors were using the technique in London and the President in the US championed it
  • faced a lot of opposition
  • 1852 the Bristish government made vaccination compulsory
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