Examine how the meaning of development varies between different parts of the world

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  • 'Examine How the Meaning of Development Varies Between Different Parts of the World'
    • Global South
      • developing
        • quality of life is improving & increased ability to meet BHNs
          • water not recognised as BHN in USA & many lack access but in UK is basic human right
            • next world war will be over water (Ismail Serageldin)
      • dependency theory
        • core & periphery - devt in one = underdevt  in the other
          • devt from GN is exploitative & reinforces inequality
            • post-development theory (development is dead)
            • Joseph Stiglitz: post-Washington consensus, v critical of GN but from GN
              • doesn't like neo-liberalism bc creates inequality which is bad for business
              • forcing free markets on GS does not  develop it creates inequality
      • traditional values
        • high birth rates but decreased death rates = popn growth
      • basic human needs
        • quality of life is improving & increased ability to meet BHNs
          • water not recognised as BHN in USA & many lack access but in UK is basic human right
            • next world war will be over water (Ismail Serageldin)
      • empowerment
        • empowerment of locals through decision making increases capacity
          • people centered! focus on solutions for all
            • socialism? of services?
            • Amartya Sen: human development theory & development as freedom
              • human devt blames inability to think broadly abt devt as a cause of poverty
              • some social groups (eg. women) more susceptible to famine then others
          • capacity building and participation
          • most farmers in India are women
            • works as grassroots with local women to promote organic farming and empower them
      • population explosion
        • high birth rates but decreased death rates = popn growth
      • grassroots
        • empowerment of locals through decision making increases capacity
          • people centered! focus on solutions for all
            • socialism? of services?
            • Amartya Sen: human development theory & development as freedom
              • human devt blames inability to think broadly abt devt as a cause of poverty
              • some social groups (eg. women) more susceptible to famine then others
          • capacity building and participation
          • most farmers in India are women
            • works as grassroots with local women to promote organic farming and empower them
      • primary industry
        • main source of  income & improving this aids devt
          • Vandana Shiva: against bio-technology & genetic engineering
            • increasing crop yields through organic farming
            • critique of India's green revolution - causes dependency
      • agricultural
        • main source of  income & improving this aids devt
          • Vandana Shiva: against bio-technology & genetic engineering
            • increasing crop yields through organic farming
            • critique of India's green revolution - causes dependency
      • Vandana Shiva (Ecofeminist)
        • 'it is not an investment if it is destroying the planet'
      • Global North
        • free markets
          • lack of government regulation & private business causes growth
            • Washington Consensus, enforced liberalisation, FDI, WTO, EU, A. Smith
            • based off meritocracy and individualism
        • capitalism
          • lack of government regulation & private business causes growth
            • Washington Consensus, enforced liberalisation, FDI, WTO, EU, A. Smith
            • based off meritocracy and individualism
        • westernised
          • centered around Europe & western ideals
            • development = democracy & capitalism
              • USA embargos on Cuba bc socialist & non-democratic
              • Amartya Sen: no famine has ever occurred in a  country with free press and regular elections
            • built on years of inequality bc colonialism = dominance
        • modernisation theory
          • industrialising leads to development
            • centered around Europe & western ideals
              • development = democracy & capitalism
                • USA embargos on Cuba bc socialist & non-democratic
                • Amartya Sen: no famine has ever occurred in a  country with free press and regular elections
              • built on years of inequality bc colonialism = dominance
        • neo-liberalism
          • consumerism
            • buying goods will bring happiness
              • 80:20 split
          • sustainable development
            • main cause of the need for conservation &SD & are the main enforcers of it on the poor
              • CITES set up by GN & detrimental to development in GS
              • GS need to exploit to develop but GN says no
                • Ramofana National Park (Madagascar) run from office in New York & 80,000 locals described as 'economic disaster'
            • Amartya Sen: less critical of GN bc moved into it
              • development is more than just GDP (created HDI for UN)
                • Human Development theory
              • DEVELOPMENT IS FREEDOM
          • conservation
            • main cause of the need for conservation &SD & are the main enforcers of it on the poor
              • CITES set up by GN & detrimental to development in GS
              • GS need to exploit to develop but GN says no
                • Ramofana National Park (Madagascar) run from office in New York & 80,000 locals described as 'economic disaster'
          • eurocentric
            • development is someone else's problem
              • consumerism
                • buying goods will bring happiness
                  • 80:20 split
          • Brandt Line
            • socio-economic and political divide
              • 4/5 permanent members of UN security council from GS
              • 80:20 split - 20% world's popn live in GN & consume 80% world's resources
            • GN has money bc old colonisers
              • control trade & aid
              • has all the patents (technological divide)

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