WJEC Sport Leisure and Tourism: LEISURE notes

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  • Created by: noor
  • Created on: 03-05-13 10:58

Leisure in the Early 20th Century

Theatres and music halls

  • 1900; most theatres were luxuriousand frequented by the middle/higher class
  • Music halls were popular with the working class; they were looked down on by others due to the raucous behavior.

Churches and chapels

  • Choirs, brass bands, drama groups, penny readings
  • Only forms of entertainment in rural areas

Pubs and intstitutes

  • Working class funded/created institutes. Used by sports teams as headquarters
  • Billiard rooms, concert halls and libraries
  • Drinking of workers avoided due to wives, chapels and empolyers' concerns. 

Cinema

  • Novelty shown in music halls/ fairs: 1914; 4000+ cinemas in Britain


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Cinemas: Landmark Films and Filmstars

Landmark Films

  • "The Great Train Robbery" (1903); inspiration for later westerns 
  • "Voyage To The Moon" (1904); broke all records. 260 minute long film costing 10,000 francs and took 3+ months to make.
  • 1927; first talkies film, "The Jazz Singer"
  • "Extraordinary Cab Accident" by R.W. Paul; one of first special effects 'stop motion' photography
  • Movement of train towards camera=standard staging method over next few years

Fim Stars

  • 1920s; Charlie Chaplin's silent comedies
  • 1930s; "talkies" stars like Clark Gable and Greta Garbo were globally famous

Government/Propganda

  • WW2; cinemas only closed for a week because govt realised they were vital for morale
  • British/German govt used film for propaganda. Ministry of info set up to monitor media
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Cinemas: Appeal/Popularity and Criticism

  • Popular with working class; it wasa quick escape from everyday life
  • 1920s: popularity and investment grew
  • Companies like MGM, Fox and Warner Bros dominate Hollywood
  • Highest attendance: 1.6 billion, 196. "Golden Age of Cinema"
  • Lowest attendance: 54 million, 1984 (due to recession)
  • 1950s: access to TV. Less cinema attendances
  • 1980s: VCR - films hired to watch at home

Negativity around cinema

  • National Council of Public Morals accused cinema of encouraging crime and indecent behaviour in the dark.
  • Church blames film for decline in attendance
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Cinemas: The Good and The Bad

Cinema key points

  • Popular with working class; it wasa quick escape from everyday life
  • 1920s: popularity and investment grew
  • People encouraged to idolize stars
  • Companies like MGM, Fox and Warner Bros dominate Hollywood
  • Highest attendance: 1.6 billion, 196. "Golden Age of Cinema"
  • Lowest attendance: 54 million, 1984 (due to recession)
  • 1950s: access to TV. Less cinema attendances
  • 1980s: VCR - films hired to watch at home

Negativity around cinema

  • National Council of Public Morals accused cinema of encouraging crime and indecent behaviour in the dark.
  • Church blames film for decline in attendance
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TV

  • Introduced in 1930s; to expensive to afford.
  • More popular during the 50's; more parts of Britain recieved signal meaning more radio and TV licenses were being sold
  • 1953; Queen Elizabeth's coronation watched by half the population on TV
  • 1955; commercial TV begins with ITV (funded by adverts)
  • 1958; ITV had 79% of total viewers
  • 1966; 85% of homes had a TV. 33 million watched England win the World Cup Final
  • 1960s; comedies, dramas, sport, soap operas, music and news all being watched
  • 1982; Channel 4
  • Satellite and cable TV (1989). TV is now the most popular form of entertainment

The Impact of TV

  • Some disapproved due to bad language, sexuality, procrastination and concentration problems in children
  • Others admired the educational aspect and how news could be known without newspapers or magazines.
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Radio

  • Appear in 1920s as the "wireless"
  • 1922; BBC created; radio licenses bought to fund it
  • 1927; first FA cup broadcast
  • 1935; half of Welsh population had radio license
  • Govt used radio as propaganda during WW2; speeches were given and morale kept high
  • 1973; first commercial radio stations
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Pop Music

  • 1950s; most listened to music on the radio 
  • Music became a central part of lives and young people expressed themselves through it
  • 1950s; rock'n'roll. Elvis Presley was influential to young people, whereas elders prefered Frank Sinatra (Crooners)
  • 1960s; The Beatles. One of the most influential bands and the only ones to make it in America.
  • The teenager developed in the swinging sixties; they had money to spend on records 
  • Pop stars influence fashion sense (mods and rockers)
  • Music used to protest and make people politically aware (Bob Dylan)
  • 1970s; Glamrock and punk rock (David Bowie, The Sex Pistols)
  • 1980s; Britpop emerges. Big business was in music (Michael Jackson)
  • 1990s; first British girl band "The Spice Girls" 
  • Satellite TV meant there were channels dedicated to music. Shows follow music (The X Factor)
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