WJEC History - Sport, Leisure and Tourism - ENTERTAINMENT

Entertainment will be in section B so needs to be known in detail.

Key things to know for this topic

  • Music Halls
  • Chapel and Church
  • Cinema 1900 - 1945
  • Radio 1900 - 1945
  • Music 1900 - 1945
  • TV 1945 - Present
  • Radio 1945 - Present
  • Cinema 1945 - Present
  • Music 1945 - Present
  • Technology

Music Halls 1900 - 1945

GOLDEN AGE - Early 1900's

What did they offer?

  • Magicians
  • Escapologists
  • Comedians
  • Singers
  • Trapeze Artists

Music Halls were relaxed environments that allowed eating, drinking and smoking throughout performances. The audience were often drunk and heckled performers but also joined in with their favourite acts.

As music halls became popular, performers did too and made tours around the country performing many halls a night. Songs were written specifically for performers and permission was needed if others wanted to perform the song. An example of a famous performer was Marie Lloyd, who sund My Old Man

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The End of Music Halls

A reason behind the end of the Music Hall was the failed attempt to reform it to a respectable form of entertainment as they lost the interest of the working class who were the main fans. The introduction of radio and cinema meant less people wanted to go to music halls.

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Church or Chapel Entertainment

What did they offer?

  • Choirs
  • Brass bands
  • Sporting teams
  • Penny Readings
  • Cymanfaoedd Canu

Churches were more strict than music halls. They wanted to draw people away from sinful forms of entertainment. This included Cymanfaoedd Canu which was a singing festival of sacred hymns, sung by a congregation. They attracted 150 000 people in 1905 alone.

Another form was penny readings which were aimed to educatepeople and draw them to chapel life. They became competitive in the Eisteddfod Fach, with English and Welsh readings of poetic and comical content.

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Cinema 1900 - 1945

GOLDEN AGE 1930's -1950's

  • Silent cinema - Charlie Chaplin
  •  Development of Talkies
  •  First talkie starred Al Jolson in The Jazz Singer 1927
  •  Cinemas became “dream palaces”
  •   Comfortable, warm and luxurious
  •  Big film stars – Errol Flynn
  •   Entertainment for all ages - Saturday matinees for children
  •  Romantic films for dating
  •  Westerns and films with cliffhanger endings popular
  •  Cheap entertainment
  • Offered “escapism” during the war
  •  Showed newsreels during the war

Were closed in World War Two for fear of bombs but reopened to keep people's morale high. Ministry of Information controlled the output of the British film industry. In war it provided shelter.

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Radio 1900 - 1945

Golden Age: 1940-60

·    development of the valve radio and mass production - everyone had one
·    construction of Broadcasting House
·    launch of the Empire Service (forerunner of the World Service)
·    During WWII - Winston Churchill made his famous inspirational speeches over the BBC airwaves
·    Used for propaganda and source of information in the war
·    light entertainment became popular – Forces programme, variety shows
·    ITMA (Its that Man Again) starring Tommy Handley
·    Woman’s Hour and Story at Bedtime established

BBC set up in 1922.

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Music 1900 - 1945

Types of Music: Jazz, Swing, crooners
Stars: Louis Armstrong, Bing Crosby

·    Jazz associated with new freedoms – smoking, drinking , clubs
·    Music led to dance crazes such as the Charleston
·    Music started to feature in films following the development of talkies
·    Dances with big bands playing popular particularly during WWII
·    Stars such as Louis Armstrong became popular
·    Development of the Gramophone – brought music into people’s homes

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TV 1945 - Present

Golden Age: 1960s onwards

Soap operas, sports , music

·    Covers major events – Queen’s coronation, World Cup final 1966
·    Colour television popular from 1970s onwards
·    Development of commercial tv – different shows – e.g game shows, soaps
·    Competition between ITV and BBC led to improvements in programmes
·    Channel 4 and Channel 5 set up in 1980s and 1990s
·    Development of satellite television – hundreds of channels
·    Variety of shows, channels – music, comedy, sport, news, documentaries – covers all tastes
·    Popular long running programmes – e.g. Coronation Street
·    Television on 24 hours a day – starts with breakfast tv in 1980s
·    Television reflects society – 1960s hard hitting documentaries for the time – present day reality and fame shows

ITV - Peoples television. Regional interests (HTV). More informal style.

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Radio 1945 - Present

Types of radio stations:  Pirate radio (Radio Caroline 1960s) BBC Radio 1-6, Commercial stations (e.g Virgin), local radio (e.g. Real Radio)

·    Setting up of Radio 1 following success of Radio Caroline
·    Commercial radio attracts star DJs - funded through adverts
·    BBC Radio caters for all tastes - specialist radio stations
·    Dedicated programmes for sports, news, comedy etc
·    Covers all major events
·    Development of transistor radio, car stereos, Ipods has helped to develop radio as background listening - could listen wherever while working, relaxing.
·    Success of long running shows – e.g. the Archers
·    BBC still relied on for news and accurate journalism – especially the World Service
·    Listener participation through competitions and phone ins

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Cinema 1945 - Present

Reasons for decline:
·    Ticket prices rose
·    The invention of the VCR allowing films to be hired and watched at home
·    Cinemas cold and draughty
·    There were 1 million TVs in Britain in 1961

Reasons for recovery:
·    Usually part of a larger entertainment complex
·    Multiplex cinemas built with plenty of parking and showing lots of films
·    3D films such as Avitar produced
·    Blockbuster films produced such as James Bond, Die Hard
·    Films based on children’s books – e.g. Harry Potter
·    Animation films with adult and child humour – e.g. Up
·    Films have different ratings to attract different age groups
·    New comfortable multiplex cinemas built
·    Films produced with stereo sound an special effects

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Music 1945 - Present

Stars: worldwide stars and bands – e.g. Madonna, U2

Reasons for popularity:

·    Music linked to fashion – e.g. Mods, Hippy movement in 1960s
·    Popularity of boy bands with teenagers
·    Rock n’ roll and jukebox in the 1950s started the teenage phenomena
·    Music linked to films – theme tunes, background music
·    Big stadium tours started in 1980s – e.g Wembley
·    Music linked to causes – e.g. Band Aid in 1980s and poverty in Africa
·    Development of dedicated radio and television channels – e.g. Music Channel
·    Development of transistor radio, walkman stereo, ipods – listening to music on the move
·    Technology – use of synthesisers, light shows, CDs in the 1980s, development of the music video
·    Music linked to news and politics – used to get message across – punk in the 1970s anti-establishment
·    Music linked to dance crazes – e.g.hip-hop

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·    Playstations, Wii, Xbox, internet, facebook, computer games, internet surfing

Reasons for popularity:

·    High quality graphics on computer games
·    Games linked to films and events
·    Opportunity to play with friends – social activity
·    Opportunity to play with people on the other side of the world
·    Computer games provide - Form of relaxation, escapism
·    Social networking popular
·    Reflects society and ways of communicating
·    Shopping on internet a popular leisure activity

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These really helped me with my revision, thanks a bunch 

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