Reasons Why Apartheid was established.
White Rule in South Africa
- Known as the Boers,(farmers) developed their own language of Afrikaans.
- Dutch were the first to settle, capetown 1652, colonised the area.
- Belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church, taught that white man superior to lesser races. Used Black slave labour.
British Arrival in South Africa.
- 1814 Britain conquered the colony, important point on India trade route.
- Boers left cape colony, created own independant repbulics - Orange Freee state and Transvaal.
- 1910 union of South Africa formed, allowed own goverment, 1931 had independence.
National Party and Apartheid
- 1948, National Party (Afrikaaners + Doctor daneil Milan) came to power
- Government introduced racist laws (Apartheid-Seperateness)
- 'Seperate developement' - races should develop in their own way.
- White supremecy- excluding non whites from economic, social, political advantage. Apartheid exsisted before 1948- National Party ruthlessly enforced it.
- The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages act (1949) - Illegal mix races to marry.
- The Population Registration act (1950) - Forced people into groups; Whites, Natives, Coloureds. races made seperate. goverment knew groups.
- The Group Areas Act (1950) - Kept each race to its own residential and trading towns and cities. people in 'wrong' areas forced to move.
- The supression of Communism act (1950) - banned any politcal group, who aimed to bring about change, by promotion of disturbances and disorder.
- Native Laws Amendment act( 1952) - Controlled movement of blacks, police given power to Arrest at will.
- Abolition of passes act(1952) - Contradiction, made all black africans carry a pass, without which living and working in white areas was illegal.
- Seperate Amenities Act (1953) - Gave public services and spaces (parks and trains) ' Europeans only' or ' Non europeans only'
- Bantu Education act (1953) - Provided lesser education for black students - prapare them for less skilled work.
- Resettlement of Natives act (1954) -compulsory movement of 100,000 africans.
- Senate act (1956) - Removed the right of black people to vote.
Changes Under Verwoerd and homelands/Bantustans.
Verwoerd - South african Premier from 1958-66. Confident and Powerful leader. He beliveved he had god given mission to secure future of Christian white South Africa. Black Africans denied political rights ' Not really South African'. Introduced Second phase of Apartheid - introduced ' Homelands' Which could then become independant nations or Bantustans.
- Created 7 Areas in SA known as Bantustans, set aside black people. live + farm.
- Bantustan - homeland for black people that had self goverment
- First was Transkei (1962) - 'independent' (1976)
- Verwoerd knew much opposition to apartheid, wanted to show that blacks could develop as they wanted in their own territory - idea that they could become completely independent nations if they wanted.
- In reality SA gov. controlled Bantu economically and politically - overule decision
- Black Africans made up 70% population, bantu had 13% of the land.
Enforced movement of Black Africans
- 3.5 million moved from homes. blacks moved out of white areas.
- Sophiatown was bulldozed and rebuilt as white suburb called Triumph.
Impact On SA Cultural Life
Law - State Aided Insitutions Act (1957) enforced segregation in libraries and places of public entertainment.
Literature - Books were used to describe how Apartheid affected SA, white writer Nadine Gordimer won noble peace prize 1991 for her novels critising racism
Music - Tsabe Tsabe, dance that inspired black musicians. The seperate amenities and Group Areas Act of the 1950's closed down arts venues, black musicians forces into exile
Art- Gerrard Sekoto - Black artist lived in Sophiatown, Painted 'women ironing' shows dark side of Aparthied.
Effects of Apartheid System on life and work in SA
- National Party believed black and whites were different - therefore taught differently, designed to teach Black africans to 'Know their place'
- Each racial group required to attend serperate schools
- Recources for black children was limited, considerably more spent on whites.
- Many parents withdrew children, when ANC argued education key to political and economic change.
- 'Non white' uni set up, courses and student life strictly controlled.
HousingMost Black Africans, not allowed to live in cities, lived in townships around them. Soweto, one of the most famous, townships became recruiting grounds for organisations such as ANC + PAC.
- Black homeland farms - smaller, less productive.
- Blacks only permitted to live in cities temporarely, if employed by whites.
- Discrimination in wages. Uemployment was high, Some trade unions, workers in essential industries were barred from striking.
Bannings, Detentions without trial & Censorship
Laws - Anti Aparthied groups banned (Supression of communism act 1950), Criminal Amendment Act 1953, illegalto protest against any law.
Banning and Detention
- Defiance Campaign 1952, Non-violent protest agaisnt apartheid, deliberatly broke laws seen as unjust. Many black africans arrested, ANC membership rose.
- Meeting to adopt freedom charter 1955, police arrested everyone on suspicion of treason. Bannings were served - suspects preventedfrom writing, making broadcasts, attending meetings or leaving home.
- Sabotage act 1962, made political opposition punishable by death, No trial act - allowed police to arrest anyone, hold them in prison for 90 days.
- Vorster - succeeded Verwoerd tightened up state security BOSS (the burea of state security 1969) - secret police aimed to enforce apartheid laws.
Censorship -- SA broadcasting company - pro-white nothing ant-apartheid broadcasted. News papers were also strictly controlled. The publications control board banned import of works and films thought to be a threat to state security.
- Born in 1918. Expelled from uni for planning a student demonstration, but eventually completed a law degree.
- involved in the ANC (African National Congress) its president in 1951.
- 1956 charged with treason, trial lasted 5 years, eventually aquitted.
- He helped start Umkhonto We Sizwe (Spear of the nation) - ANC millitary branch in 1961 after the ANC + PAC were planned.
- Arrested again 1962, for incitement and leaving the country illegally. At the Rivonia trials in 1964 sentanced forlife.Symbol of resistance while imprisoned on Robben island, 1990 he was released.
Rivonia trials in 1964- accused of sabotage, MK broken up. Government held a show trial to destroy image of ANC. Guilty were sentenced to life imprisonment including Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu.
Steve Biko -
- Born 1946, began to campaign for an all black uni movement.
- 1969 became president of SASO (South African Students Organisation).
- He wanted freeing of the black mind became known as Black consciousness. Died in 1977 after 26 days in police detention due to a blow to the head.
- PAC created in 1959, led by Robbert Sobukwe, first attack on Apartheid, nation wide protest against pass laws, Sharpeville black township high umemployment.
- 21st march 1960 crowd of 20,000 gathered in sharpeville surrounded police station, eyewitensses noisey but not hostile.
- Fence was trampled, officer knocked down young police man lost his nerve, fired into crowed as did colleages, 69 killed 186 wounded shots in the back.
Aftermath of Sharpeville - Africans held day of mourning, white people bought arms to defend themselves. Comission of enquiry set up, findings were inconclusive. No order to shot had been given, no warning shots. Police officers unexperienced.
Concequences Of Sharpeville
- Shocked international opinion. Demands for apartheid to end.
- Government was defiant. Public gatherings were banned ANC+PAC illegal.
- Were forced underground, Oliver Tambo fled overseas establish a branch ANC.
- Spear of the Nation or MK and Poqo (PAC) carried out more violent protests as non-violent achieved nothing. MK began sabotage campaign against public places. Poqo more violent, 1962 11 police officers killed.
- Sobukwe imprisoned many detained. state of emergancy. Total repression.
Soweto Origins - June 1976 school children began rioting against the governments education policies. As part of the educational reform government ordered 1/2 teaching in black schools delivered in afrikaans. Language not understood and despised by black south africans, Youth unemployment was high, moves to make the transkei independant they would loose access to the job markets and SA citizenship.
Soweto Key events
- Protest March of students 16th june 1976 in Soweto.
- Senior pupil spoke to crowd of several thousand appealed for calm, police surrounded crowd tear gas canister thrown into crowd.
- Single shot lead to more shootings. News of shootings spread amongst black people, barricades were erected. 00's police arrived errupted in violence.
- Many raids and arrests followed many of these were children.
- Official no. of dead 176 + 575 aftermath of rioting inc 104 child, gov. banned all movement of black conciousness incl SASO. Became focus in 1980 boycott and burning of buildings commencedwhen national service men employed as teachers in black schools. Support for ANC grew many left country to join ANC in exile. March 1985 20 Africans shot dead by police during a funeral procession, protests spread led to a bombing campaign.
- Leading voice for change in SA, when national party came to power, set up in 1912, campaign fro the rights of black SA, became more organisedunder leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Oliver Tambo and Albert Luthuli.
- ANC aims were to fight for freedom, from white domination, and gain representations of black africans in all official insitutions.
- Belived in using peacefull protest to achieve these aims.
- Day of defiance 1952, blackSAwalked into forbidden areas without their passes,aswell asmeeting forfreedom charter for theright to vote and equality before the law, ended in many arrests, for treason, treason trials.
- The need for more millitant violent approach, led to formation of PAC, 1959.
- Formed by Robert Sobukwe, rejected colaboration with Asian and Coloured SA.
White Opposition Groups
- United Party-official opposition 1948, rejected apartheid but supported white supremacy and seg.
- Progressive Party-Branch Of United Party 1959, protection of human rights, all racial groups to be represented in SA parliment, Helen Suzan Campaigned kept her seat in next election.
- Liberal Party-spoke out against Apartheid dissolved in 1969 as didnt follow the law of different races being members of parties.
- White congress party-against idea of white supremacy banned as connections with communism.
- Black Sash-white women, human rights group, took up legal cases on behalf of black people.
Other Opposition and individual Opposition
- Inkatha Ya Kwazulu-black opposition group 1975, Cheif Buthelezi PM of Kwazulu Homeland.
- wanted zulu nation to be independant contrasted to ANC aim for a united SA explited by gov.
- UDF(united democratic front)-1983 Dr Alan Boesak, 565 of different races and backgrounds, all united to oppose apartheid-major threat to national parties grip on power in SA.
- Father Trevor Huddelstone + Bishop Ambrose Reeves best known white opponents of Apartheif of Anglican Church.
- Archbishop Desmond Tutu awarded noble peace prize 1984 non-violent campaign.
International Opposition The UN
1948 UN recognised people of all races were equal, much debate about SA (Apartheid) and control of South west Africa (Namibia). After Sharpeville 1960 UN security council, passed resolution declaring SA policies endangering international peace and security, condemnation of SA government became more widespread, more newly independant Afican states, took their places in the UN 1960/70.
SA involvement in South West Africa (Namibia)
Namibia previously germany colony, 1919 became a mandate of SA (looked after as it prepared for independance). 1945 SA expolited the country and introduced apartheid to it aswell. SA refused to give up mandate when UN demanded and looked to integrate Namibia as part SA. 1960 SWAPO ( the south west African peoples organisation) set up Used guerrilla tatics on SA. 1971 UN decalred US presences illegal, 1973 recognised SWAPO as true representatives. Little was achieved from fighting between SWAPO and SA army until 1989 due to international pressure popular elections were held, 1990 Namibia was last African colony to be independant.
Nature of International Opposition OAU
- OAU (Organisation of African unity)
- ANC + PAC - banned in SA, opened offices abroad places such as London and Cairo. With other expelled political groups from Namibia + Southern Rhodesia formed OAU 1963. OAU put pressure on UN to issolate SA through sanctions as a start to ending white rule,
- SA clever policy of developing trade relations with new African nations many of which depended on SAfor economic survival - made it difficult to impose sanctions.
Nature of international opposition the commonwealth
- Commonwealth (name given after WW to realtionship betweeen britain and its colonies)
- When countries became independant still allowed to remain loyal to british crown being members of the British Commonwealth Of Nations.
- SA 50th Anniversary held referendum, changed from dominion status to a republic seperate from commonwealth. Verwoerd argued that commonwealths independant African states were hostile to SA.
- 1960 British PM visited Africa made 'Winds of change ' speech referred to newly independant African states, seen by SA as attack on apartheid, 1961 SA left commonwealth after criticism.
UN + Economic Sanctions - 1962 UN voted to impose economic sanctions (trade restrictions) on SA to put pressure on gov. + lift apartheid. Members of the UN were urged to break off diplomatic relations with SA close airports and harbours to SA planes and ships. Sales of arms to SA were banned 1963. 1973 OPEC banned oil sales to SA.
International Sanctions - Sullivan code urged US firms to withdraw from SA after Soweto. 1980 international action escalated after world saw pictures of SA security forces. European Community imposed economic sanctions 1985. 1986 US senate banned new investments and loans in SA, large companies e.g coca cola closed down buisnesses in SA. Scandanavian countries introduced total ban on all SA goods. October 1989 all commonwealth countries except Britain imposed a 3 Tier Programme to stiffen sanctions.
The effectivness of sanctions - SA very wealthy and sanctions were never uniformly imposed it was unlikely to have been seriously damaged by them. Many developing economies found it difficult to end trade links to SA. SA too valuable to the west for key raw materials e.g diamonds and gold. After western banks stopped loans to SA 1985 SA economy fell into depression.
- 1969 Basil D'Oliviera was selected to play for the British Cricket team to tour SA, ' coloured' player SA disqualified him from playing. Tour was cancelled, international sporting ban started.
- 1970 SA was expelled from Olympics, 1976 extended- any country that kept sporting relations with SA.
- 1977 all commonwalth countries served sporting links with SA, UN passed ' International declaration against apartheid in sport'.
- Despite boycotts some sporting events continued esp rugby. 1980 british teams toured SA.
- There was also unoffical rebel cricket tours. 1982 english cricketers 3 year ban for ignoring boycott, although some players refused to play in SA.
Opposition By Ordinary People.
- The AAM (Anti Apartheid movement) 1950's encouraged people to pretest.
- Mid 1970's AAM was in most european countries.
- Strategies included; Public boycotts, Pressure for UN Sanctions, Humanitarian aid to refugees, helping liberation movements.
P.W Botha and the ' New Realism'
- Became PM 1978, SA experiencing major problems.
- Economy depressed - Sanctions, Boycotts and withdrawl of foregin investment.
- Rise in unemployment due to population increase.
- White rule in Zimbabwe and Mozambique has collapsed - vunerable to guerilla attack.
Bothas 'Total Strategy'
- Did not want to give up white rule, but needed change, - ' Total Strategy'
- Create Black middle class; More rights, education skills and competition.
- Stop attacks from neibouring countries by making them econimcaly reliant on SA
- Gave black people a say in how Taxes in townships were spent.
Botha cont. - 'Removing Petty Apartheid'
- Discriminating signs removed, Desegregation allowed (not compulsory)
- 1985-1986 Mixed Marriages act and Pass laws were abolished.
Changes to Constitution
- Parliment with 3 chambers set up(Whites, coloured and Asians), all laws still had to be approved by white chamber - further extended apartheid.
- Anti Apartheid supporters believed changes didnt go far enough, right wing believed it had gone too far.
Bothas Total Onslaught
- Threat of communism seen by Moscow and ANC. State security stepped up and intellegance gathered on black activists.
- 1990 cold war was over, threat was removed.
Growth of Black Resistance
- Government set up African councils in townships- unpopular.
- 7,000 troops entered Sebokeng, searched 20,000 houses. Uitenhage 20 africans killed.
- Goverment declares state of emergency - virtual civil war.
- Violence between ANC and Inkatha. ANC angry that Cheif Buthelezi agreed to having a zulu homeland - they believed this was co-operating with National Party
Bothas 'Rubicon Speech'
- 1985 delivered rubicon speech to stop the violence.
- Expected to announce reforms to apartheid, did opposite. no intenion of majority rule.
- Speech Unpopular around the world, international banks pulled out, USA passed Anti Apartheid act.
The Role of Black Church Leaders - Alan Boesak & Desmond Tutu.
Alan Boesak- Minister of Dutch Reformed church, criticised it for supporting Apartheid. Thought Apartheid was a heresy. 1983 became president of UDF. 1985 called a march to release Nelson Mandela - violence errupted when police interveened - attrached international interest.
Desmond Tutu - Anglican Church Priest, first black secretary of SA council of churches. 1986 became first black archbishop of cape town. Criticised apartheid 1984 won nobel peace prize. argued that God has decreed all Africans to be equal. Especialy successful during the Presidency of F.W de Klerk.
F.W. De Klerk.
- 1988, Sanctions cuasing economic problems, main political parties band, SA in deadlock. 1989 botha had a stroke resigned, Klerk took his place.
- De Klerk realised things had to change. 1990 legalised ANC, PAC and communist party. Ordered the release of many political prisoners, suspended death sentence, reduced emergancy detentions.
Release of Nelson Mandela
- Government starts talks with ANC 1990, State emergancy lifted, ANC agreed to ceasefire.1991 Many Apartheid acts removed. Many pro Apartheid supporters left the National Party and joined the Conservative Party.
- The Afrikaner resistance movement increased opposition.
- Violence between ANC and Inkatha escalted, as they found the government of supplying Inkatha with Military and Economic aid.
- Spiraling Violence forced, De' Klerk, Mandela and Buthelezi to sign a National Peace Accord 1991.
CODESA and the determination of Mandela and De'Klerk not to be Derailed.
CODESA -- The Convention for a Democratic SA 1991. 19 political parties discussed new consitition. Agreed to ' An Undivided SA... free from any discrimination or domination.
Referendum -- De'Klerk used a Whites only referendum on the peace protest, he was worried about far right opposition. Mandela urged his followers not to distrupt this. 68% of voters gave De'Klerk his support - could continue with reforms.
Co-Operation -- 1992, 45 people killed at Boipatong in an act of brutal violence, part of the conflict between ANC and Inkatha. 30 people then died in Bisho when ANC marched to overthrow government. 1993 Chris Hani popular ANC member was assassinated by Right Wing extremeists. Politicans realised that Co-operation was needed and Talks resumed.
- April 27th 1994 SA's first election based on universal sufferage was held.
- ANC won 62.6% of the vote, they had to co-operate with whites still.
- National Party gained 0.4%, Inkathta gained 10.5% of the vote.
- 10th may 1994 Mandela was inaugurated as president, Thabo Mbekei and De Klerk as deputy presidents, Buthelezi minister for home affairs.
- Sanctions lifted in october 1993, sports and cultural links resumed.
- International trade and investments started.
- Talks about possibly re-joining the commonwealth and developing relations with the EU where held.