Primary Industry, Croft Quarry (Notes)
+ Where? (Croft Quarry is located next the the village of Croft, 10km SW of Leicester)
+ Why is it an ideal location? (Central location accessible/ Excellent road network/ southern granite)
+ How can we describe the activity? (Owned by CAMAS/ Employs 300 people/ Blasting occurs 3 times p/w/ Rock is transported to its markets on lorries and railway trucks)
+ Why does Croft Quarry need to expand? (If the quarrty fails to expand then it will run out of granite and it will have to close > expand into croft hill as expansion in village will lead to a public outcry)
+ Arguments for expansion? (New jobs/ peoples QOL will deteriorate if not jobless/ granite transported by rail so no increase traffic/ many workers send kids to local school > moving away/ workers will have to move from area > massive negative multiplier effect on area)
+ Arguments against? (Tourists @ Croft hill/ natural focus of migratory birds/ loss of valuable leisure)
+ Expansion and enivronment? (Noise pollution on wildlife/ increased road traffic/whole eco-sys gone)
+ Sust.? (Replacement hill/ plant thousands of trees/ protect wildlife/ regeneration of sites)
A Service Provision in a Large City (Notes)
+ What are services? (Shops/ child areas/ recycling points/ sports centres/ parks/ public libraries > accessibility is important to quality of life)
+ Cinemas in Coventry? (Odeon/ Showcase/ Warwick arts centre)
+ Distribution? (Not all clustered/ Odeon = CBD/ Showcase = north eastern edge of Cov (walsgrave)/ Warwick arts is on the south western edge of Cov) Easily accessible? - No not to Radford/Holbrooks/Whitley/Willenhall)
+ Where is the showcase cinema? (6km from the CBD)
+ Why there? (large plot for car park/cheaper land/ large catchment for customers/ located on a retail park)
+ Good effects? (jobs/ improved leisure/ big range) Bad effects? (built on greenfield site > loss of wildlife)
The location of a tertiary industry (Notes)
+ What is it? (Multi-National Furniture company/ 242 stores/ mordern affordable)
+ Why in Coventry? (Easy planning permission > city centre regeneration) IKEA is a flagship scheme, high quality design/ enhanced area/ improve traffic flow)
+ How has IKEA improved Cov? (access to popular store/ accessible/ funds)
+ Advantages of the site? (Brownfield/ supply of jobs/ transport links/ accessible by foot/ centre location) Disadvantages? (not easy access for delivery vans and construction/ close proximity of public = noise dust and design/ underground river danger/ a 200 yr old mulberry tree grows on part of the site which had to remain)
+ Direct/ Indirect employment? (480 jobs created/ 85% to local people/ maintenance of kitchens and delivery to homes are indirect employment opportunities)
+ Affected different people? (Shoppers = improved shops/ diners = eating places/ jobs for teens/ w/o cars)
+ Environment? (Impressive design) Sustainable? (Yes/ geothermal heating/ construction used sus. timber)
Fair Trade Cocoa (Notes)
+ Where and what? (NW coast of Africa/ Next to Atlantic Ocean/ LEDC/ less than 1p for every chocolate bar goes to farmers)
+ Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers.
+ Kuapa Kokoo is a cocoa-growing co-operative set up in 1993 in response to the partial liberalisation of the cocoa sector in Ghana/It is the only farmer-owned organisation among the private companies that have been granted government licences to trade cocoa/ In this marketing role, Kuapa Kokoo purchases cocoa from members and other farmers.
+ Helped develop a strong, democratic institutional framework at all levels of the organisation. With the additional income from Fair trade premiums has been able to improve the livelihoods its members; projects undertaken by the organisation have helped the farmers, especially the women, empower themselves, and ensure a sense of community participation and ownership.
+ What is Aid? (Giving of resources by one Country/ Organisation to another country/ examples: Money/goods/food/tech or people) (Many LEDC depend on it)
+ What is the Aim? (Help poorer countries to develop economy and services to improve standard of living/ does not always benefit the recipient country)
+ Why might it be given? (Drought/ Failing economy/ Famine/ War/ Water/ Pandemics/ Natural disaster)
+ 1 Bilateral Aid (2 Countries/ Rich donor > Poor recipient/ strings attached/ Donor imposes conditions e.g. only them/ Recipients can end up falling into further debt as it has to replay the loan)
+ 2 Multilateral Aid (Richer countries money to international org. (world bank/international money fund)/ Redistribute the money to poor countries/ no political ties/ unlikely to be given to a dictatorship country)
+ 3 Voluntary Aid (Organisations raise money from general public in rich countries/ send it for use on specific projects in poorer countries/ No political ties/ small scale projects/ usually the first to provide food clothing and shelter following major disasters) (short term aid)
Practical Action Shelter project (Notes)
Practical Action Aid scheme
+ Homeless people in LED-Cs often build makeshift shelters in shanty towns. These are often built on land not fit for development such as steep slopes or marshland which is vulnerable to floods and landslides.
+ Practical Action is a charity which helps communities to learn the skills they need to build better quality housing using their own labor, local resources and traditional techniques.
+ Practical Action has succeeded in changing government policy on housing in Kenya. Now, local authorities recognize houses that have been made from inexpensive materials as proper dwellings.
+ Practical Action also aim to improve basic services and infrastructure. As local people have been consulted from the outset, they can apply their skills in continuing to improve their surroundings. Their involvement has also given them a sense of ownership and responsibility.
+ Practical Action also has shelter programs in other countries including Zimbabwe and Peru.
+ Their work is an example of sustainable development - a development which minimizes damage to the environment or local resources.
Sustainable use of resources
The world's natural resources have conflicting demands upon them and can be difficult to manage.
Aims of sustainability:The environment should be preserved.
Resources need to be retained for future generations to enjoy.
Humans need to continue to make and do the things that allow them to live comfortably.
LEDCs need to develop, through exploiting their resources.
There should be a better balance between the consumption of those resources between LEDCs and MEDCs.
To conserve natural resources for future generations, sustainable management of the natural environment is necessary. Alternative resources might be developed in order to ease the strain on finite resources. However, alternative resources can be expensive and take time to develop. Existing resources could be used more efficiently, to prevent finite resources being used up so quickly.
Burbo Bank Wind Farm, L.Pool Bay (Notes)
Burbo Bank Wind Farm (Sustainability)
- Wind power is a controversial commodity. Although it is renewable, and goes some way towards solving the problem of scarce fossil fuels for energy, not everyone is in favour of wind farms. Those who live close to wind farms claim that they are unsightly and noisy.
- Burbo Bank wind farm has been fully operational since summer 2007, and consists of 25 turbines, which produce enough energy to supply 80,000 homes. The wind conditions in this part of the Mersey estuary are perfect for harnessing wind energy.
- During the installation noise could be heard by nearby residents as the turbines were fixed into the seabed.
- Some people living along the Sefton Coast have since had their view of Snowdonia blighted by the windmills.