Unit 2 (WJEC) Germany in Transition (1929-1947)

Just a complete guide to the second (WJEC) unit of Germany. Adapted from my notes, which were in turn adapted from the good words of my History teachers and from the relevant (WJEC) textbooks. Covers right through the War, and from the period of 1929 to 1947, plus, at the beginning, a little section on the Big Three Crises of 1929 (Hyperinflation, Munich Putsch etc). Any questions/sourcework that are not notes are seperated by a full line of dashes at their beginning and end. SPG checked, relevant for 2012.

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  • Created on: 16-04-12 22:29
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Unit 2: Germany in Transition (1929-1947) Sophie Thomas
The Rise of the Nazi Party and the Consolidation of Power
What was the impact of the Weimar period on the rise of the Nazis?
Political and economic problems of Weimar
The early development of the Party
How and why did Hitler get appointed Chancellor in January 1933?
Political scheming 1929-1932
The reasons for Nazi electoral success
How did the Nazis consolidate their power during 1933-1934?
Hitler as Chancellor
The move to dictatorship
What were the effects of WWI on Germany?
Early 1918, Germany wins on Eastern Front and Russia pulls out of the war.
On the Western Front (Germany vs. Great Britain and France) the Ludendorff Offensive
breaks the stalemate and Germany looks set to win the war.
But in 1917, a year before Germany wins on the Eastern Front, America enters the War and
makes the Allies stronger: they push Germany back.
September 1918 ­ Germany has to make peace. The enthusiasm for the war had gone, over
1 million Germans had been killed, and civilians faced starvation after the British blockade.
Germany had to get rid of their Kaiser (the King) if the Allies were to agree to a peace.
Mutiny led to the Kaiser's abdication in November 1918: he then fled to Holland.
Armistice is agreed on the 11/11/1918.
(Definitions: Stalemate ­ when nobody can move; Blockade ­a physical barrier; Kaiser ­ the German
king; Abdication ­ when a monarch gives up their throne; Armistice ­ the non-official end to a war.)
Psychological Effects:
Before WWI, Germany had been proud and wanted to work hard for success. The War made the
Germans bitter and angry, and they looked for someone to blame.
Political Effects:
Pre-existing political problems: working and middle-class people had little say in how their country
should be run, and there was no opposition to the Kaiser. Germany was ruled as a dictatorship under
their military.
Anarchy:
Germany was unstable; Armed Soldiers were returning home and protesting against the War and the
Kaiser.
Physical Problems:
Farming was disrupted because farmers went to the armed forces. Production was down, and 50%
of milk produced was lost. British navy blockaded German ports (meaning they had no imports) and
750,000 Germans died from a combination of hunger and disease.
The Political Spectrum of Germany:
Many people had different political beliefs.
Some liked to keep things as they are.
Others desperately wanted change, to make the world a fairer place.

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Unit 2: Germany in Transition (1929-1947) Sophie Thomas
Most had middling views.
The Treaty of Versailles
Woodrow Wilson (USA)
President of America ­ the USA suffered the least during the war.
He believed in a fair peace treaty to prevent Germany from seeking revenge in the future.
He also thought that small countries should be given independence.
David Lloyd George (UK)
British Prime Minister ­ Britain suffered greatly during the war.
He also wanted a fair peace.
He wanted Germany punished, but not too greatly.…read more

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Unit 2: Germany in Transition (1929-1947) Sophie Thomas
Consequences:
Germany was no longer benefitting from the Ruhr Valley, and is therefore getting poorer.
Crisis Two: Hyperinflation.
Events:
Germany had no money to pay for reparations.
Its government decided to print off more money, so the value of money goes down whilst
the prices of goods go up.
People who were employed had to be paid twice a day to keep up with daily essentials,
such as bread.…read more

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Unit 2: Germany in Transition (1929-1947) Sophie Thomas
Rebuilding the Used loans to benefit Improved housing, and Depending on USA, so
economy Germany (from the pensions and wages farmers began to
USA) rose. support Nazi Party.
Hitler and the Nazi Party:
Born in Austria.
Wanted to be an artist.
Became Chancellor of Germany in 1935.
He believed in the Aryan race.
Anti-Semitic (he hated the Jewish).
Leader of the Nazi Party.
He was a WWI messenger and was gassed: he also almost went blind.…read more

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Unit 2: Germany in Transition (1929-1947) Sophie Thomas
Religion:
No.24 ­ Religious freedom to all (provided that their views didn't threaten or offend the German
people).
Consequences of the Munich Putsch:
Hitler considered making a name for himself on a national scale. He had been rather impressed with
Benito Mussolini's 1922 Italian seizure of power. He knew that he would have to win over
Germany's forces to gain further support. He'd also won over General Ludendorff's trust and
support, who was extremely popular.…read more

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Unit 2: Germany in Transition (1929-1947) Sophie Thomas
The reparations payments were suspended, and Brüning resigned in May 1932. After this, the
extreme parties become increasingly successful and there is much more violence on the streets.
Why was the Nazi Party successful after 1930?
The Role of Goebbels:
The increase in Nazi support had a great deal to do with propaganda. Some of the vehicles of
propaganda used (this is essentially ways of displaying propaganda) included posters, symbols,
mass rallies and banners.…read more

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Unit 2: Germany in Transition (1929-1947) Sophie Thomas
Nazis were optimistic about improving on the number of votes that they had obtained previously. In
the run-up to all of this, there was much violence, which resulted in around 100 people killed and
more than 1,125 people wounded. More Germans voted in July than in any previous election: the
Nazis won 230 seats and so became the largest party in the Reichstag.…read more

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Unit 2: Germany in Transition (1929-1947) Sophie Thomas
Limitations to Hitler's Power:
Hindenburg (the President) can sack him at any time.
Opposition parties still exist.
He doesn't have the support of the Army, which feels threatened by the S.A.
There are only three Nazis in the government (8 non-Nazis).
Any laws must be passed by the Reichstag first.
The Reichstag Fire
In January 1933, Hitler's power was still limited.…read more

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Unit 2: Germany in Transition (1929-1947) Sophie Thomas
suspend people's civil liberties, could control the press and ban trade unions, along with a host of
other things that would allow him to create his perfect dictatorship.
Gleichschaltung ("Coordination";"Making The Same"; "Bringing Into Line".)
The Nazis achieved totalitarian control over society through three main ways:
1. The banning of political parties.
2. The banning of all trade unions.
3. The state government re-organised and controlled (Länder).
2nd May, 1933.…read more

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Unit 2: Germany in Transition (1929-1947) Sophie Thomas
Hitler needed the army's support, which had felt threatened by the S.A, but NLK took care of
this.
On the 4th August 1934, President Hindenburg dies. Hitler then combined the roles of
Chancellor and President to make Führer (leader). The army then had to swear an oath of
allegiance.
90% supported Hitler's power grab.
Hitler increased his control over Germany after Hindenburg's death in a number of ways.…read more

Comments

Lulu

Thankyou!! This is so good and helpful!!

arianator 4 life

massive help

Durre

Another thing is that asteroids are rock fragments made around 4.5 billion years ago. They formed quite close to the Sun, which explains why they contain no ice (i.e it melted). Asteroids come in many shapes and forms.
Mitzi, 8 minutes ag
Durre here is the next bit on Asteroids. Most are found in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. This is thought to actually have been another planet, that couldn't form because Jupiter's gravitational pull was too great. Now and again asteroids wander away from the belt. Another belt of asteroids is the Kuiper belt, found past Neptune, around about where Pluto is. Pluto is in fact just a very large trans-neptunian object. Here many of the dwarf planets are also found. Asteroids usually have a more circular orbit than comets as well.
Durre here is the next bit on Asteroids. Most are found in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. This is thought to actually have been another planet, that couldn't form because Jupiter's gravitational pull was too great. Now and again asteroids wander away from the belt. Another belt of asteroids is the Kuiper belt, found past Neptune, around about where Pluto is. Pluto is in fact just a very large trans-neptunian object. Here many of the dwarf planets are also found. Asteroids usually have a more circular orbit than comets as well.

Erm well it wasn't a book, but a set of cards called "The photographic card deck of the solar system" but they do make a book version of it as well. It's like £13 on amazon. at least I think it was there that I read it, but I may be wrong. Either way they're good though.

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