what I need to learn

  • Created by: jxssann
  • Created on: 16-02-19 17:04

what I need to learn

long muscles are strong and used by muscles to aid movement.

short bones support the weight of the body- weightbearing

irregular bones are for protection and muscle attachment 

flat bones are to protect and their broad surface allows muscle attachment.

spine- 7,12,5,5,4

bones that meet at a joint are the articulating bones.

ligaments- restrict how much joints can move, maintains stability and prevents dislocation

tendons- allow bones to move when muscles contract

cartilage- cushion between bones to prevent damage

synovial joints- held together by ligaments and the end of bones are coverd with cartilage and shaped so they move smoothly. the synovial membrane releases synovial fluid into the joint capsule to lubricate the joint allowing for a smoother movement. most have sacs called bursae that reduce friction between the bones and tissue. this structure helps prevent injury.

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what I need to learn

Voluntary muscles are attached to the skeleton and move the body.

Smooth/involuntary muscles- work internal organs without effort. e.g. the muscles in blood vessels control the amount going to voluntary muscles.

Pectoralis major- adduction and flexion at the shoulder. Forehand drive in tennis

Trapezius- extension at the neck, preparing to head a football.

Rotator cuffs- rotation/abduction at shoulder. lifting arms when preparing to dive.stabilise shoulder during other movements.

External obliques- rotation/flexion at the waist, preparing to throw a discus

fixators are muscles that stabilise the agonist

isometric contraction- muscle stays the same length

isotonic contaction- muscle changes length so something moves

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what I need to learn

inhale- diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract to move ribcage up and expand chest cavity. decrease air pressure. 21% oxygen, 79% nitrogen , 0.04% carbon dioxide

exhale-diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax, rib cage moves down shrinking the chest cavity.air pressure increases. 16% oxygen, 79%nitrogen, 4% carbon dioxide

cardio-respiratory system is exchanging gases with alveoli

tidal volume- air breathed in or out in one breath. average 500ml

inspiratory reserve volume- the extra amount of air you could possibly breath in after one inhale. average 3L

expiratory reserve volume- extra air you could breath out after exhale. average 1.2L

during exercise tidal volume increases so IRV&ERV decrease

vital capacity- largest amount of air you could beath out after a full breath in, can be increased through exercise

residual volume- tiny bit of air left after breathing out as much as you can. average 1.2L

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what I need to learn

spirometer produces a spirometer trace

carbohydrates are the bodies main source of fuel. can be used aerobically or anaerobically

fats provide more energy but can only be used for aerobic activity.

short term effects of exercise on the muscular system

  • release extra energy as heat so you get hot and sweaty
  • lactate accumulation
  • causesmuscle fatigue
  • oxygen debt

a day or two after- DOMS , sick or light-headed , tired 

short term effects on respiratoy system

  • muscles like pectorals expand your lungs to let in extra air- increases minute ventilation
  • abdominals pull ribcage down to shrink the chest cavity so you exhale faster
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what I need to learn

short term effects on the cardiovascular system

  • heart rate increases
  • stroke volume increases
  • cardiac output increases
  • increases pressure of your systolic blood pressure

an increase in cardiac output during an exercise means the blood passes through the lungs faster

after you breath in theres a high concentration gradient between alveoli and capillaries so diffusion is faster

long term effects of exercise on the musco-skeletal system

  • musces thicken and muscle girth is larger, changes body shape- called hypertrophy
  • the thicker a muscle is the stronger it can contract so an increase in strength
  • improves muscular endurance
  • increased bone density through putting stres/forces through the bones. less likely to break
  • stronger ligaments and tendons- more flexible and less likely to get injured
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what I need to learn

long term effects of exercise on the cardio-respiratory system

  • bigger stronger heart ( cardiac hypertrophy)- resting hr decreases (bradycardia)
  • lower blood pressure muscular walls become more elastic
  • capillarisation
  • more red blood cells
  • larger lung capacity- diaphragm and intercostal muscles become stronger so chest cavity larger. increases tidal volume and minute ventilation . larger lung capacity means you can take in the same amount of oxygen with a lower breathing rate.
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