GCSE PE Revision (2)

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Learning Movement Skills

  • There are various definitions of learning but the predominant view is that experience gives us knowledge, which then influences the way we behave.
  • Motor skills that are used in sport can be learned in a variety of ways.
  • 3 of the main ways are: 
  • 1. by making associations between what we see and hear (stimuli) and what we can do (response) by practicing or rehearsing actions.
  • 2. by using trial and error.
  • 3. by observing others then copying them.
  • Practice and Rehearsal
  • When first learning motor skills, we practice repetitive drills to encourage movements to become almost automatic.
  • The response becomes conditioned for a certain stimulus.
  • One issue with the drill style of teaching motor skills is that the participant does not gain an understanding of why they are doing something.
  • This lack of understanding can limit future learning of more complex skills.
  • Practice and rehearsal is more likely to work if there is a reward. 
  • This is called positive reinforcement.
  • Trial and Error Learning Of Motor Skills
  • This involves the shaping of behavior through reinforcement.
  • If a reward is given when a certain behavior takes place, then the learning takes place faster; this is called complete reinforcement.
  • Partial reinforcement is when a reward is given after a number of correct responses. Learning will take longer in this method.
  • Trial and error is widely used and is very effective in the learning of motor skills.
  • Rewards are used extensively in teaching skills because they reinforce correct behavior.
  • Others have argued that punishment is effective in modifying behavior but it can have bad side effects such as anxiety, depression, and a lack of motivation.
  • The most effective method would be a mixture of punishment and reinforcement.
  • Copying others - observational learning
  • Many people believe that responses are not just learnt from association, but also from other people.
  • Learning takes place through copying or imitating others.
  • The person being observed is…

Comments

Michelle SMith

Resource covers ways in which skill can be learnt 

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